Treatment with inhibition of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) improves survival in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nevertheless, only a subset of patients benefit from treatment and biomarkers of response to immunotherapy are lacking. Expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells is the primary clinically-available predictive factor of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors, and its relevance in cancer immunotherapy has fostered several studies to better characterize themechanisms that regulate PD-L1 expression. However, the factors associated with PD-L1 expression are still not well understood. Genomic alterations that activate KRAS, EGFR, and ALK, as well as the loss of PTEN, have been associated with increased PD-L1 expression. In addition, PD-L1 expression is reported to be increased by amplification of CD274, and decreased by STK11 deficiency. Furthermore, PD-L1 expression can be modulated by either tumor extrinsic or intrinsic factors. Among extrinsic factors, the most prominent one is interferon- release by immune cells, while there are several tumor intrinsic factors such as activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Myc pathways that can increase PD-L1 expression. A deeper understanding of PD-L1 expression regulation is crucial for improving strategies that exploit inhibition of this immune checkpoint in the clinic, especially in NSCLC where it is central in the therapeutic algorithm. We reviewed current preclinical and clinical data about PD-L1 expression regulation in NSCLC.

The mechanisms of PD-L1 regulation in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Which are the involved players?

Lamberti G.
;
Sisi M.;Andrini E.;Palladini A.;Giunchi F.;Lollini P. -L.;Ardizzoni A.;Gelsomino F.
2020

Abstract

Treatment with inhibition of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) improves survival in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nevertheless, only a subset of patients benefit from treatment and biomarkers of response to immunotherapy are lacking. Expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells is the primary clinically-available predictive factor of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors, and its relevance in cancer immunotherapy has fostered several studies to better characterize themechanisms that regulate PD-L1 expression. However, the factors associated with PD-L1 expression are still not well understood. Genomic alterations that activate KRAS, EGFR, and ALK, as well as the loss of PTEN, have been associated with increased PD-L1 expression. In addition, PD-L1 expression is reported to be increased by amplification of CD274, and decreased by STK11 deficiency. Furthermore, PD-L1 expression can be modulated by either tumor extrinsic or intrinsic factors. Among extrinsic factors, the most prominent one is interferon- release by immune cells, while there are several tumor intrinsic factors such as activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Myc pathways that can increase PD-L1 expression. A deeper understanding of PD-L1 expression regulation is crucial for improving strategies that exploit inhibition of this immune checkpoint in the clinic, especially in NSCLC where it is central in the therapeutic algorithm. We reviewed current preclinical and clinical data about PD-L1 expression regulation in NSCLC.
Lamberti G.; Sisi M.; Andrini E.; Palladini A.; Giunchi F.; Lollini P.-L.; Ardizzoni A.; Gelsomino F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/780754
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