Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are beginning to show promise in the clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Most recently, the anti-programmed death protein-1 (PD-1) agent atezolizumab combined with bevacizumab demonstrated superiority to sorafenib in a Phase 3 randomised clinical trial in the frontline setting. Other ongoing trials of immunotherapy for HCC are exploring different drug combinations, such as a double checkpoint blockade with PD-1 and anti-Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) agents or with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Moreover, ICIs are being tested in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings trying to resolve long-time unmet needs in HCC. The results of the ongoing trials will be critical to understanding the extent of the therapeutic role of ICIs in the complex and multifaceted clinical scenario of HCC. Still, there are some critical points which need further attention to clarify the best use of ICIs in HCC patients. For instance, the actual eligibility rate of patients in the real-life scenario, the prompt identification and correct management of immune-mediated adverse events, the identification of biomarkers predicting response or resistance, and strategies to prevent the tumour escape from ICI effect.

Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors for hepatocellular carcinoma: Where are we now?

Tovoli F.;De Lorenzo S.;Trevisani F.
2020

Abstract

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are beginning to show promise in the clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Most recently, the anti-programmed death protein-1 (PD-1) agent atezolizumab combined with bevacizumab demonstrated superiority to sorafenib in a Phase 3 randomised clinical trial in the frontline setting. Other ongoing trials of immunotherapy for HCC are exploring different drug combinations, such as a double checkpoint blockade with PD-1 and anti-Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) agents or with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Moreover, ICIs are being tested in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings trying to resolve long-time unmet needs in HCC. The results of the ongoing trials will be critical to understanding the extent of the therapeutic role of ICIs in the complex and multifaceted clinical scenario of HCC. Still, there are some critical points which need further attention to clarify the best use of ICIs in HCC patients. For instance, the actual eligibility rate of patients in the real-life scenario, the prompt identification and correct management of immune-mediated adverse events, the identification of biomarkers predicting response or resistance, and strategies to prevent the tumour escape from ICI effect.
2020
Tovoli F.; De Lorenzo S.; Trevisani F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/777235
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