We developed a hybrid numerical model of dike propagation in two dimensions solving both for the magma trajectory and velocity as a function of the source overpressure, the magma physical properties (density and viscosity), and the crustal density and stress field. This model is used to characterize the influence of surface load changes on magma migration toward the surface. We confirm that surface loading induced by volcanic edifice construction tends both to attract the magma and to reduce its velocity. In contrast, surface unloading, for instance, due to caldera formation, tends to divert the magma to the periphery‐retarding eruption. In both cases the deflected magma may remain trapped at depth. Amplitudes of dike deflection and magma velocity variation depend on the ratio between the magma driving pressure (source overpressure as well as buoyancy) and the stress field perturbation. Our model is then applied to the July 2001 eruption of Etna, where the final dike deflection had been previously interpreted as due to the topographic load. We show that the velocity decrease observed during the last stage of the propagation can also be attributed to the local stress field. We use the dike propagation duration to estimate the magma overpressure at the dike bottom to be less than 4 MPa. This approach can be potentially used to forecast if, where, and when propagating magma might reach the surface when having knowledge on the local stress field, magma physical properties, and reservoir overpressure.

A two-step model for dynamical dike propagation in two dimensions: Application to the July 2001 Etna eruption

Maccaferri, F.;Rivalta, E.;
2017

Abstract

We developed a hybrid numerical model of dike propagation in two dimensions solving both for the magma trajectory and velocity as a function of the source overpressure, the magma physical properties (density and viscosity), and the crustal density and stress field. This model is used to characterize the influence of surface load changes on magma migration toward the surface. We confirm that surface loading induced by volcanic edifice construction tends both to attract the magma and to reduce its velocity. In contrast, surface unloading, for instance, due to caldera formation, tends to divert the magma to the periphery‐retarding eruption. In both cases the deflected magma may remain trapped at depth. Amplitudes of dike deflection and magma velocity variation depend on the ratio between the magma driving pressure (source overpressure as well as buoyancy) and the stress field perturbation. Our model is then applied to the July 2001 eruption of Etna, where the final dike deflection had been previously interpreted as due to the topographic load. We show that the velocity decrease observed during the last stage of the propagation can also be attributed to the local stress field. We use the dike propagation duration to estimate the magma overpressure at the dike bottom to be less than 4 MPa. This approach can be potentially used to forecast if, where, and when propagating magma might reach the surface when having knowledge on the local stress field, magma physical properties, and reservoir overpressure.
Pinel, V.; Carrara, A.; Maccaferri, F.; Rivalta, E.; Corbi, F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/775913
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