Parenteral nutrition (PN) offers the possibility to increase or to ensure nutrient intake in patients, in whom sufficient nutrition by oral or enteral alone is insufﬁcient or impossible. Complementary to the ESPEN guideline on enteral nutrition of liver disease (LD) patients the present guideline is intended to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of PN in LD. For this purpose three paradigm conditions of LD were chosen: alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), liver cirrhosis and acute liver failure. The guideline was developed by an interdisciplinary expert group in accordance with ofﬁcially accepted standards and is based on all relevant publications since 1985. The guideline was presented on the ESPEN website and visitors’ criticism and suggestions were welcome and included in the final revision. PN improves nutritional state and liver function in malnourished patients with ASH. PN is safe and improves mental state in patients with cirrhosis and severe HE. Perioperative (including liver transplantation) PN is safe and reduces the rate of complications. In acute liver failure PN is a safe second-line option to adequately feed patients in whom enteral nutrition is insufficient or impossible.
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