World air cargo includes freight (scheduled, charter, and express) and mail, with scheduled freight and express representing the largest components. High speed and reliability are the basic advantages of air transport. As air cargo fares are usually quite expensive compared to land and maritime transport, most goods that are transported by air are characterised by a high value-to-weight ratio. Indeed, in 2007 commodities transported by air showed a strong tendency to be valued at more than 16 $ per kilogram (Boeing, 2008). Gold, jewellery, works of art are normally carried by air transport (Doganis, 2002). For these commodities air transport is chosen primarily because of the high level of security offered, as the journey time, during which goods are at risk, is minimised. Emergency freight are typically carried by air transport as well (Doganis, 2002). They include, for instance: urgently required medicines, spare parts for machinery, legal documents. Air transport is also used in emergency as surface communications are difficult, like in many underdeveloped countries, or when they become disrupted by natural disasters, wars, etc. Routine freight carried by air can be divided in perishable and non-perishable goods (Doganis, 2002). Fish, vegetables, newspapers are examples of perishable goods. The commercial life of these products is very brief and travel time has to be kept shorter. Routine non-perishable freight generally consists of fragile or relatively small and high value goods, such as optical and electrical goods, micro-chips and clothing. With respect to express parcels, it can be observed that the average international express shipment size grew from 2,7 kg in 1992 to 5,7 kg in 2007 (Boeing, 2008): the distinction between express, mail and general air cargo does continue to blur and express carriers, freight airlines, and postal authorities are progressively consolidating. Carriers are the key player of the air cargo industry (Boeing, 2008), together with shippers, freight forwarders , airport operators and the regulatory bodies of the air transport system. Air carriers can be classified in combination carriers, all cargo carriers and integrators (Doganis, 2002). Combination carriers carry freight traffic: (1) in the belly-holds of their passenger flights; (2) in all cargo aircraft; (3) in combi aircraft, which are wide-body aircraft where freight is loaded in part of the main upper deck as well as in the belly-hold. All cargo carriers operate all cargo flights only. These carriers can be either independent airlines or subsidiary companies of traditional passenger airlines. Postal authorities also can be classified as all cargo carriers that operate specialised services for mail only. The third group of carriers is composed by the so-called integrators. While combination and all-cargo carriers provide conventional airport-to-airport services, the integrators provide door-to-door, time-definite, multimodal services for small parcels. The integrators price services on the basis of the speed of delivery and not only according the weight and volume of the parcels. However, traditional air freight carriers are expanding their time-definite services, and, as it has already been underlined, the differences between express carriers, freight airlines, and postal authorities are rapidly fading.

The evolution of air cargo demand in Italy

DANESI, ANTONIO;MANTECCHINI, LUCA
2009

Abstract

World air cargo includes freight (scheduled, charter, and express) and mail, with scheduled freight and express representing the largest components. High speed and reliability are the basic advantages of air transport. As air cargo fares are usually quite expensive compared to land and maritime transport, most goods that are transported by air are characterised by a high value-to-weight ratio. Indeed, in 2007 commodities transported by air showed a strong tendency to be valued at more than 16 $ per kilogram (Boeing, 2008). Gold, jewellery, works of art are normally carried by air transport (Doganis, 2002). For these commodities air transport is chosen primarily because of the high level of security offered, as the journey time, during which goods are at risk, is minimised. Emergency freight are typically carried by air transport as well (Doganis, 2002). They include, for instance: urgently required medicines, spare parts for machinery, legal documents. Air transport is also used in emergency as surface communications are difficult, like in many underdeveloped countries, or when they become disrupted by natural disasters, wars, etc. Routine freight carried by air can be divided in perishable and non-perishable goods (Doganis, 2002). Fish, vegetables, newspapers are examples of perishable goods. The commercial life of these products is very brief and travel time has to be kept shorter. Routine non-perishable freight generally consists of fragile or relatively small and high value goods, such as optical and electrical goods, micro-chips and clothing. With respect to express parcels, it can be observed that the average international express shipment size grew from 2,7 kg in 1992 to 5,7 kg in 2007 (Boeing, 2008): the distinction between express, mail and general air cargo does continue to blur and express carriers, freight airlines, and postal authorities are progressively consolidating. Carriers are the key player of the air cargo industry (Boeing, 2008), together with shippers, freight forwarders , airport operators and the regulatory bodies of the air transport system. Air carriers can be classified in combination carriers, all cargo carriers and integrators (Doganis, 2002). Combination carriers carry freight traffic: (1) in the belly-holds of their passenger flights; (2) in all cargo aircraft; (3) in combi aircraft, which are wide-body aircraft where freight is loaded in part of the main upper deck as well as in the belly-hold. All cargo carriers operate all cargo flights only. These carriers can be either independent airlines or subsidiary companies of traditional passenger airlines. Postal authorities also can be classified as all cargo carriers that operate specialised services for mail only. The third group of carriers is composed by the so-called integrators. While combination and all-cargo carriers provide conventional airport-to-airport services, the integrators provide door-to-door, time-definite, multimodal services for small parcels. The integrators price services on the basis of the speed of delivery and not only according the weight and volume of the parcels. However, traditional air freight carriers are expanding their time-definite services, and, as it has already been underlined, the differences between express carriers, freight airlines, and postal authorities are rapidly fading.
Danesi A.; Mantecchini L.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/76654
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