Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is a rare clinical variant of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Mediterranean Europe. Here we report on three autochthonous cases of head and neck ML in patients living in Northeastern Italy. Patients presented with non-specific, long-standing symptoms of upper respiratory tract involvement, mimicking other diseases. Parasitological diagnosis was reached by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and molecular biology on tissue specimens. Leishmania infantum was identified by molecular typing in all three cases. All patients reached a complete remission with protracted multivalent antileishmanial drugs; in one case, a novel approach of combined medical and endoscopic surgical treatment was carried out. High clinical suspicion led to a prompt diagnosis and deployment of a multivalent treatment. ML should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nasal, oral, and pharyngolaryngeal lesions in endemic areas. A prompt diagnosis is mandatory to establish a correct management; different antileishmanial medications as well as endoscopic surgical options may be required to reach a complete remission.

Autochthonous cases of mucosal leishmaniasis in Northeastern Italy: Clinical management and novel treatment approaches

Gaspari V.
;
Zaghi I.;Patrizi A.;Salfi N.;Locatelli F.;Carra E.;Re M. C.;Varani S.
2020

Abstract

Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is a rare clinical variant of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Mediterranean Europe. Here we report on three autochthonous cases of head and neck ML in patients living in Northeastern Italy. Patients presented with non-specific, long-standing symptoms of upper respiratory tract involvement, mimicking other diseases. Parasitological diagnosis was reached by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and molecular biology on tissue specimens. Leishmania infantum was identified by molecular typing in all three cases. All patients reached a complete remission with protracted multivalent antileishmanial drugs; in one case, a novel approach of combined medical and endoscopic surgical treatment was carried out. High clinical suspicion led to a prompt diagnosis and deployment of a multivalent treatment. ML should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nasal, oral, and pharyngolaryngeal lesions in endemic areas. A prompt diagnosis is mandatory to establish a correct management; different antileishmanial medications as well as endoscopic surgical options may be required to reach a complete remission.
Gaspari V.; Zaghi I.; Macri G.; Patrizi A.; Salfi N.; Locatelli F.; Carra E.; Re M.C.; Varani S.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/758252
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