A variety of sex related differences in the eye have been identified, and many of these have been associated to the effects of sex steroids. Significant sex related differences have been demonstrated in the anterior chamber, iris, ciliary body, lens, vitreous, and retina. In the ocular surface, sex differences have been found in the lacrimal gland, Meibomian gland, cornea, conjunctiva, nasolacrimal duct and tear film, with reference in particular to the anatomy, immunity, pain perception. It is believed that these differences may contribute, at least in part, to the female prevalence of Dry Eye Disease (DED). Not only androgens, estrogens and progestins, but also the hypothalamic- pituitary hormones, glucocorticoids, insulin, and thyroid hormones have an influence in the sex related variations. The role of X-chromosome genes has also been demonstrated. Gender (the person's self-representation as male or female) can also lead to related differences in DED, including health care utilization, treatment outcomes, impact on the quality of life. Overall, sex, hormones and gender play a key role in the difference of DED prevalence between men and women, and are important variable to be taken into account to validate the scientific research of DED in the future.

Sex, gender and hormones in dry eye disease / Versura, Piera. - In: ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA. - ISSN 1755-375X. - STAMPA. - 97:(2019), pp. S263-s204. [10.1111/j.1755-3768.2019.8132]

Sex, gender and hormones in dry eye disease

Versura, Piera
2019

Abstract

A variety of sex related differences in the eye have been identified, and many of these have been associated to the effects of sex steroids. Significant sex related differences have been demonstrated in the anterior chamber, iris, ciliary body, lens, vitreous, and retina. In the ocular surface, sex differences have been found in the lacrimal gland, Meibomian gland, cornea, conjunctiva, nasolacrimal duct and tear film, with reference in particular to the anatomy, immunity, pain perception. It is believed that these differences may contribute, at least in part, to the female prevalence of Dry Eye Disease (DED). Not only androgens, estrogens and progestins, but also the hypothalamic- pituitary hormones, glucocorticoids, insulin, and thyroid hormones have an influence in the sex related variations. The role of X-chromosome genes has also been demonstrated. Gender (the person's self-representation as male or female) can also lead to related differences in DED, including health care utilization, treatment outcomes, impact on the quality of life. Overall, sex, hormones and gender play a key role in the difference of DED prevalence between men and women, and are important variable to be taken into account to validate the scientific research of DED in the future.
2019
Sex, gender and hormones in dry eye disease / Versura, Piera. - In: ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA. - ISSN 1755-375X. - STAMPA. - 97:(2019), pp. S263-s204. [10.1111/j.1755-3768.2019.8132]
Versura, Piera
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/734586
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