Mediterranean marine aquaculture has suffered significant economic losses due to viral nervous necrosis (VNN) outbreaks mainly caused by different RGNNV betanodavirus strains. In recent years, the marine aquaculture sector has experienced the emergence of the RGNNV/SJNNV reassortant betanodavirus, harbouring the RNA1 segment of RGNNV genotype and the RNA2 segment of SJNNV genotype. So far, the reassortant strains caused massive mortality outbreaks in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae sparing the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In this study, multiple mortality outbreaks occurred in one Italian marine hatchery involving both European sea bass and gilthead sea bream at different life stages were investigated through a complete microbiological and molecular analysis. Gilthead sea bream larvae and juveniles have recorded the highest mortality rates, however, both European sea bass and gilthead sea bream incurred a RGNNV/SJNNV reassortant betanodavirus persistent infection, able to act as asymptomatic carriers and viral source for susceptible fish. These new epidemiological data on nervous necrosis virus (NNV) reassortant infection provide precious advice on how to manage fish to reduce VNN spread in Mediterranean aquaculture. Evidence of interspecies transmission of RGNNV/SJNNV reassortant strains and the persistent infection in both European sea bass and gilthead sea bream, point out the importance to enforce a wide surveillance and a strict biosecurity programme addressing both RGNNV and reassortant RGNNV/SJNNV betanodaviruses in Mediterranean European sea bass and gilthead sea bream farms. Furthermore, the presence assessment of betanoviruses in all newly-introduced fish batches in the farm, regardless of the species and a strict segregation between European sea bass and gilthead sea bream batches within farms can significantly reduce the risk of NNV transmission. Finally, surviving fish can act as carrier fish, and thereby must be segregated from other batches and protected from stress conditions that could trigger a new clinical phase.

Viral nervous necrosis outbreaks caused by the RGNNV/SJNNV reassortant betanodavirus in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

Volpe, E.;Gustinelli, A.;Caffara, M.;Errani, F.;Quaglio, F.;Fioravanti, M. L.;Ciulli, S.
2020

Abstract

Mediterranean marine aquaculture has suffered significant economic losses due to viral nervous necrosis (VNN) outbreaks mainly caused by different RGNNV betanodavirus strains. In recent years, the marine aquaculture sector has experienced the emergence of the RGNNV/SJNNV reassortant betanodavirus, harbouring the RNA1 segment of RGNNV genotype and the RNA2 segment of SJNNV genotype. So far, the reassortant strains caused massive mortality outbreaks in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae sparing the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In this study, multiple mortality outbreaks occurred in one Italian marine hatchery involving both European sea bass and gilthead sea bream at different life stages were investigated through a complete microbiological and molecular analysis. Gilthead sea bream larvae and juveniles have recorded the highest mortality rates, however, both European sea bass and gilthead sea bream incurred a RGNNV/SJNNV reassortant betanodavirus persistent infection, able to act as asymptomatic carriers and viral source for susceptible fish. These new epidemiological data on nervous necrosis virus (NNV) reassortant infection provide precious advice on how to manage fish to reduce VNN spread in Mediterranean aquaculture. Evidence of interspecies transmission of RGNNV/SJNNV reassortant strains and the persistent infection in both European sea bass and gilthead sea bream, point out the importance to enforce a wide surveillance and a strict biosecurity programme addressing both RGNNV and reassortant RGNNV/SJNNV betanodaviruses in Mediterranean European sea bass and gilthead sea bream farms. Furthermore, the presence assessment of betanoviruses in all newly-introduced fish batches in the farm, regardless of the species and a strict segregation between European sea bass and gilthead sea bream batches within farms can significantly reduce the risk of NNV transmission. Finally, surviving fish can act as carrier fish, and thereby must be segregated from other batches and protected from stress conditions that could trigger a new clinical phase.
Volpe, E.; Gustinelli, A.; Caffara, M.; Errani, F.; Quaglio, F.; Fioravanti, M.L.; Ciulli, S.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/734019
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