Nickel (Ni) is a naturally occurring metal, but anthropogenic activities such as industrialization, use of fertilizers, chemicals, and sewage sludge have increased its concentration in the environment up to undesirable levels. Ni is considered to be essential for plant growth at low concentration; however, Ni pollution is increasing in the environment, and therefore, it is important to understand its functional roles and toxic effects on plants. This review emphasizes the environmental sources of Ni, its essen-tiality, effects, tolerance mechanisms, possible remediation approaches, and research direction that may help in interdisciplinary studies to assess the significance of Ni toxicity. Briefly, Ni affects plant growth both positively and negatively, depending on the concentration present in the growth medium. On the positive side, Ni is essential for normal growth, enzymatic activities (e.g., urease), nitrogen metabolism, iron uptake, and specific metabolic reactions. On the negative side, Ni reduces seed germination, root and shoot growth, biomass accumulation, and final production. Moreover, Ni toxicity also causes chlorosis and necrosis and inhibits various physiological processes (photosynthesis, transpiration) and cause oxidative damage in plants. The threat associated with Ni is increased as Ni concentration increases day by day in the environment, particularly in soils; therefore, it would be hazardous for crop production in the near future. Additionally, the lack of information regarding the mechanisms of Ni tolerance in plants further intensifies this situation. Therefore, future research should be focused on approachable and prominent solutions in order to minimize the entry of Ni into our ecosystems.

Nickel toxicity in plants: Reasons, toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and remediation possibilities—a review

Hassan M. U.;Ali A.;Khan M. A. U.;
2019

Abstract

Nickel (Ni) is a naturally occurring metal, but anthropogenic activities such as industrialization, use of fertilizers, chemicals, and sewage sludge have increased its concentration in the environment up to undesirable levels. Ni is considered to be essential for plant growth at low concentration; however, Ni pollution is increasing in the environment, and therefore, it is important to understand its functional roles and toxic effects on plants. This review emphasizes the environmental sources of Ni, its essen-tiality, effects, tolerance mechanisms, possible remediation approaches, and research direction that may help in interdisciplinary studies to assess the significance of Ni toxicity. Briefly, Ni affects plant growth both positively and negatively, depending on the concentration present in the growth medium. On the positive side, Ni is essential for normal growth, enzymatic activities (e.g., urease), nitrogen metabolism, iron uptake, and specific metabolic reactions. On the negative side, Ni reduces seed germination, root and shoot growth, biomass accumulation, and final production. Moreover, Ni toxicity also causes chlorosis and necrosis and inhibits various physiological processes (photosynthesis, transpiration) and cause oxidative damage in plants. The threat associated with Ni is increased as Ni concentration increases day by day in the environment, particularly in soils; therefore, it would be hazardous for crop production in the near future. Additionally, the lack of information regarding the mechanisms of Ni tolerance in plants further intensifies this situation. Therefore, future research should be focused on approachable and prominent solutions in order to minimize the entry of Ni into our ecosystems.
Hassan M.U.; Chattha M.U.; Khan I.; Chattha M.B.; Aamer M.; Nawaz M.; Ali A.; Khan M.A.U.; Khan T.A.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/729982
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