This short review highlights significant changes and recent findings incorporated to varying extent in the WHO 2016 definition of a variety of tumours, including peripheral nerve sheath tumours, meningiomas, mesenchymal nonmeningothelial tumours, melanocytic tumours, lymphomas and histiocytic tumours, germ cell tumours and non-neuroendocrine pituitary tumours. Most notable classification changes include: adding ‘hybrid nerve sheath tumours’ to the spectrum of benign nerve sheath tumours; an updated definition of atypical meningioma (WHO grade II), including cases with brain invasion; recognizing dural solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) and haemangiopericytoma (HPC) as a single tumour entity characterized by NAB2 and STAT6 gene fusions for which the term SFT/HPC was chosen; recognizing that pituitary granular cell tumour, spindle cell oncocytoma, and pituicytoma all share nuclear expression of TTF-1, possibly representing a spectrum of a single nosological entity derived from posterior pituitary glial cells. The most significant diagnostic markers which have emerged include: inactivation of NF1, CDKN2A, and PRC2 components, SUZ12 and EED in MPNST, leading to neurofibromin and H3K27me3 expression loss; GNAQ and GNA11 mutations in CNS primary melanocytic tumours; BRAFV600E mutation in histiocytic tumours (Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Erdheim-Chester disease) and papillary craniopharyngioma, which provides both a diagnostic marker in the appropriate pathological setting and a therapeutic target. The WHO 2016 Classification has balanced cutting-edge knowledge on the molecular characteristics of the miscellaneous CNS tumours reviewed here with a practical approach for their daily diagnostic work-up. Much more progress can be expected in the classification of these neoplasms in the near future.

WHO 2016 classification: changes and advancements in the diagnosis of miscellaneous primary CNS tumours

Giannini C.
2018

Abstract

This short review highlights significant changes and recent findings incorporated to varying extent in the WHO 2016 definition of a variety of tumours, including peripheral nerve sheath tumours, meningiomas, mesenchymal nonmeningothelial tumours, melanocytic tumours, lymphomas and histiocytic tumours, germ cell tumours and non-neuroendocrine pituitary tumours. Most notable classification changes include: adding ‘hybrid nerve sheath tumours’ to the spectrum of benign nerve sheath tumours; an updated definition of atypical meningioma (WHO grade II), including cases with brain invasion; recognizing dural solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) and haemangiopericytoma (HPC) as a single tumour entity characterized by NAB2 and STAT6 gene fusions for which the term SFT/HPC was chosen; recognizing that pituitary granular cell tumour, spindle cell oncocytoma, and pituicytoma all share nuclear expression of TTF-1, possibly representing a spectrum of a single nosological entity derived from posterior pituitary glial cells. The most significant diagnostic markers which have emerged include: inactivation of NF1, CDKN2A, and PRC2 components, SUZ12 and EED in MPNST, leading to neurofibromin and H3K27me3 expression loss; GNAQ and GNA11 mutations in CNS primary melanocytic tumours; BRAFV600E mutation in histiocytic tumours (Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Erdheim-Chester disease) and papillary craniopharyngioma, which provides both a diagnostic marker in the appropriate pathological setting and a therapeutic target. The WHO 2016 Classification has balanced cutting-edge knowledge on the molecular characteristics of the miscellaneous CNS tumours reviewed here with a practical approach for their daily diagnostic work-up. Much more progress can be expected in the classification of these neoplasms in the near future.
NEUROPATHOLOGY AND APPLIED NEUROBIOLOGY
Sahm F.; Reuss D.E.; Giannini C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/726689
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