Objectives: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe manifestation of the infection caused by the protozoan Leishmania, recently on increase in Italy and Spain. The aim of the study was to describe FDG uptake patterns in VL patients (pts) who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT. Methods: A retrospective monocentric study of pts who underwent FDG PET/CT between 2008 and 2017 and later diagnosed with VL was performed. Semi-quantitative parameters were calculated in FDG-positive lesions: SUVmax, SUVmax spleen/SUVmax liver ratio (SLR), SUVmax focal/diffuse spleen ratio (FDR). Results: Overall, 23 pts were included. PET/CT was negative in 2 immunocompromised pts, positive in 21/23 (91%) [6 spleen only, 2 spleen + nodes, 7 spleen + bone marrow (BM), 4 spleen + BM + nodes, 1 spleen + BM + lung, 1 BM only + nodes, 2 nodes only]. Splenic involvement was demonstrated in 20/23 (87%) pts. Two different splenic patterns were observed: diffuse (13/20 pts, mean spleen SUVmax = 7.3 ± 4.2 [4.0–14.1], mean SLR = 2.2 ± 1.6 [1.3–6.7]) and focal over diffuse (7/20 pts, mean SUVmax = 12.6 ± 4.5 [9.5–20.5], mean SLR = 2.8 ± 0.8 [2.1–4.4], mean FDR = 2.1 ± 0.8 [1.2–3.6]). Extra-splenic FDG-avid findings were detected in 15/21 pts (65%): bone marrow in 13/15 (mean SUVmax = 4.0 ± 1.3 [2.8–6.0]), nodes in 67/15 and lung in 1/15. Conclusions: PET/CT demonstrated splenic FDG uptake in all immunocompetent VL pts; two splenic patterns (diffuse/focal over diffuse) were observed and indistinguishable from splenic involvement by other disorders. The most frequent extra-splenic FDG-positive sites were BM and lymph nodes. Considering the potential disease aggressiveness and recent outbreaks in north-eastern Italy, VL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of FDG-positive splenic findings in pts from endemic areas or reporting travels to endemic countries.

18F-FDG PET/CT in visceral leishmaniasis: uptake patterns in the context of a multiannual outbreak in Northern Italy

Varani S.;Attard L.;Vanino E.;Ortalli M.;Fonti C.;Viale P.;Re Carla.;Fanti S.;Ambrosini V.
2019

Abstract

Objectives: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe manifestation of the infection caused by the protozoan Leishmania, recently on increase in Italy and Spain. The aim of the study was to describe FDG uptake patterns in VL patients (pts) who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT. Methods: A retrospective monocentric study of pts who underwent FDG PET/CT between 2008 and 2017 and later diagnosed with VL was performed. Semi-quantitative parameters were calculated in FDG-positive lesions: SUVmax, SUVmax spleen/SUVmax liver ratio (SLR), SUVmax focal/diffuse spleen ratio (FDR). Results: Overall, 23 pts were included. PET/CT was negative in 2 immunocompromised pts, positive in 21/23 (91%) [6 spleen only, 2 spleen + nodes, 7 spleen + bone marrow (BM), 4 spleen + BM + nodes, 1 spleen + BM + lung, 1 BM only + nodes, 2 nodes only]. Splenic involvement was demonstrated in 20/23 (87%) pts. Two different splenic patterns were observed: diffuse (13/20 pts, mean spleen SUVmax = 7.3 ± 4.2 [4.0–14.1], mean SLR = 2.2 ± 1.6 [1.3–6.7]) and focal over diffuse (7/20 pts, mean SUVmax = 12.6 ± 4.5 [9.5–20.5], mean SLR = 2.8 ± 0.8 [2.1–4.4], mean FDR = 2.1 ± 0.8 [1.2–3.6]). Extra-splenic FDG-avid findings were detected in 15/21 pts (65%): bone marrow in 13/15 (mean SUVmax = 4.0 ± 1.3 [2.8–6.0]), nodes in 67/15 and lung in 1/15. Conclusions: PET/CT demonstrated splenic FDG uptake in all immunocompetent VL pts; two splenic patterns (diffuse/focal over diffuse) were observed and indistinguishable from splenic involvement by other disorders. The most frequent extra-splenic FDG-positive sites were BM and lymph nodes. Considering the potential disease aggressiveness and recent outbreaks in north-eastern Italy, VL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of FDG-positive splenic findings in pts from endemic areas or reporting travels to endemic countries.
Zanoni L.; Varani S.; Attard L.; Morigi J.J.; Vanino E.; Ortalli M.; Fonti C.; Viale P.; Re Carla.; Fanti S.; Ambrosini V.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/725242
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