Recently, a new genotype of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), named ITA, was detected in IBD-vaccinated Italian broilers. Genome characterization revealed ITA to be a genetically different IBDV, belonging to genogroup 6 according to a recently proposed IBDV classification. The currently available clinical data do not allow any definition of the degree of pathogenicity of the ITA-IBDV isolates. In the present study, a pathogenicity trial was conducted by the oral inoculation of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. Birds were housed in poultry isolators and inoculated at 35 days of age with an ITA-IBDV isolate (35 birds) or a strain belonging to the G1a genogroup as a comparison (35 birds). Control birds (25 birds) were contextually mock-inoculated with sterile water. Birds were observed daily for clinical signs and at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi) were bled for IBDV antibody detection. At 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 dpi, five birds from each of the inoculated groups, and three from the control group, were euthanized and subjected to a post-mortem examination; the bursa:body weight and thymus:body weight ratios were calculated. Microscopic lesions of the bursa and thymus were scored on the basis of lymphoid necrosis and/or depletion or cortex atrophy, respectively. Both viruses induced a subclinical course of disease, as neither clinical signs nor mortality were recorded during the study, even in the presence of typical IBDV gross and microscopic lesions. Bursal damage, measured by the bursa:body weight ratio, was more noticeable and precocious after ITA-IBDV inoculation. Histopathology scores of the bursa, indicative of rapid lymphoid depletion, confirmed the aggressiveness of the ITA-IBDV strain in this organ. This study showed that, although the ITA-IBDV strain tested causes infection with a subclinical course, it induces severe damage to lymphoid tissues. Therefore, its circulation in birds might be a threat for the poultry industry and may jeopardize the success of the production cycle.

Comparative in vivo pathogenicity study of an ITA genotype isolate (G6) of infectious bursal disease virus

Lupini C.
;
Felice V.;Silveira F.;Mescolini G.;Listorti V.;Catelli E.
2020

Abstract

Recently, a new genotype of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), named ITA, was detected in IBD-vaccinated Italian broilers. Genome characterization revealed ITA to be a genetically different IBDV, belonging to genogroup 6 according to a recently proposed IBDV classification. The currently available clinical data do not allow any definition of the degree of pathogenicity of the ITA-IBDV isolates. In the present study, a pathogenicity trial was conducted by the oral inoculation of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. Birds were housed in poultry isolators and inoculated at 35 days of age with an ITA-IBDV isolate (35 birds) or a strain belonging to the G1a genogroup as a comparison (35 birds). Control birds (25 birds) were contextually mock-inoculated with sterile water. Birds were observed daily for clinical signs and at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi) were bled for IBDV antibody detection. At 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 dpi, five birds from each of the inoculated groups, and three from the control group, were euthanized and subjected to a post-mortem examination; the bursa:body weight and thymus:body weight ratios were calculated. Microscopic lesions of the bursa and thymus were scored on the basis of lymphoid necrosis and/or depletion or cortex atrophy, respectively. Both viruses induced a subclinical course of disease, as neither clinical signs nor mortality were recorded during the study, even in the presence of typical IBDV gross and microscopic lesions. Bursal damage, measured by the bursa:body weight ratio, was more noticeable and precocious after ITA-IBDV inoculation. Histopathology scores of the bursa, indicative of rapid lymphoid depletion, confirmed the aggressiveness of the ITA-IBDV strain in this organ. This study showed that, although the ITA-IBDV strain tested causes infection with a subclinical course, it induces severe damage to lymphoid tissues. Therefore, its circulation in birds might be a threat for the poultry industry and may jeopardize the success of the production cycle.
Lupini C.; Felice V.; Silveira F.; Mescolini G.; Berto G.; Listorti V.; Cecchinato M.; Catelli E.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/723102
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