Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a heterogeneous disease arising from a complex interaction between host-specific genetic background and multiple risk factors. Globally, CCA incidence rates exhibit geographical variation, with much higher incidence in parts of the Eastern world compared to the West. These differences are likely to reflect differences in geographical risk factors as well as genetic determinants. Of note, over the past few decades, the incidence rates of CCA appear to change and subtypes of CCA appear to show distinct epidemiological trends. These trends need to be interpreted with caution given the issues of diagnosis, recording and coding of subtypes of CCA. Epidemiological evidences suggest that in general population some risk factors are less frequent but associated with a higher CCA risk, while others are more common but associated with a lower risk. Moreover, while some risk factors are shared by intrahepatic and both extrahepatic forms, others seem more specific for one of the two forms. Currently some pathological conditions have been clearly associated with CCA development, and other conditions are emerging; however, while their impact in increasing CCA risk as single etiological factors has been provided in many studies, less is known when two or more risk factors co-occur in the same patient. Moreover, despite the advancements in the knowledge of CCA aetiology, in Western countries about 50% of cases are still diagnosed without any identifiable risk factor. It is therefore conceivable that other still undefined etiologic factors are responsible for the recent increase of CCA (especially iCCA) incidence worldwide.

Khan S.A., Tavolari S., Brandi G. (2019). Cholangiocarcinoma: Epidemiology and risk factors. LIVER INTERNATIONAL, 39(1), 19-31 [10.1111/liv.14095].

Cholangiocarcinoma: Epidemiology and risk factors

Tavolari S.;Brandi G.
2019

Abstract

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a heterogeneous disease arising from a complex interaction between host-specific genetic background and multiple risk factors. Globally, CCA incidence rates exhibit geographical variation, with much higher incidence in parts of the Eastern world compared to the West. These differences are likely to reflect differences in geographical risk factors as well as genetic determinants. Of note, over the past few decades, the incidence rates of CCA appear to change and subtypes of CCA appear to show distinct epidemiological trends. These trends need to be interpreted with caution given the issues of diagnosis, recording and coding of subtypes of CCA. Epidemiological evidences suggest that in general population some risk factors are less frequent but associated with a higher CCA risk, while others are more common but associated with a lower risk. Moreover, while some risk factors are shared by intrahepatic and both extrahepatic forms, others seem more specific for one of the two forms. Currently some pathological conditions have been clearly associated with CCA development, and other conditions are emerging; however, while their impact in increasing CCA risk as single etiological factors has been provided in many studies, less is known when two or more risk factors co-occur in the same patient. Moreover, despite the advancements in the knowledge of CCA aetiology, in Western countries about 50% of cases are still diagnosed without any identifiable risk factor. It is therefore conceivable that other still undefined etiologic factors are responsible for the recent increase of CCA (especially iCCA) incidence worldwide.
2019
Khan S.A., Tavolari S., Brandi G. (2019). Cholangiocarcinoma: Epidemiology and risk factors. LIVER INTERNATIONAL, 39(1), 19-31 [10.1111/liv.14095].
Khan S.A.; Tavolari S.; Brandi G.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/719989
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