We carried out a computational investigation at the density functional theory (M06-2X) level on the effects of oriented external electric fields (OEEF) on activation barriers and stereochemical output of the thermal ring opening of 3-substituted cyclobutenes (C4H5X) to butadienes. It is well known that with π-electron-donor substituents (X = CH3, NH2), the conrotatory outward rotation is preferred, while with π-electron-acceptor substituents (X = CHO, NO, BH2), the conrotatory inward process becomes favored. In the presence of the OEEF applied along the three axes x, y, and z in either positive or negative direction, for both π-donor and π-acceptor substituents, we observed either catalysis or inhibition. Both effects were consistent with the change of the induced dipole along the direction of the applied field. An interesting effect was observed for X = CHO and NO. The simultaneous catalysis and inhibition of the outward and inward transformation leads to a reversed ratio between outward and inward transformation, with the former being favored (stereochemical inversion). Such effect was not observed for X = BH2 (the strongest π-acceptor examined here). In this case, in the absence of the applied field, the difference between the inward and outward barriers is too large and the simultaneous catalysis and inhibition of the outward and inward transformation is not capable of determining the stereochemical inversion.

Oriented External Electric Fields Affect Rate and Stereoselectivity of Electrocyclic Reactions

Mattioli E. J.;Bottoni A.;Zerbetto F.;Calvaresi M.
2019

Abstract

We carried out a computational investigation at the density functional theory (M06-2X) level on the effects of oriented external electric fields (OEEF) on activation barriers and stereochemical output of the thermal ring opening of 3-substituted cyclobutenes (C4H5X) to butadienes. It is well known that with π-electron-donor substituents (X = CH3, NH2), the conrotatory outward rotation is preferred, while with π-electron-acceptor substituents (X = CHO, NO, BH2), the conrotatory inward process becomes favored. In the presence of the OEEF applied along the three axes x, y, and z in either positive or negative direction, for both π-donor and π-acceptor substituents, we observed either catalysis or inhibition. Both effects were consistent with the change of the induced dipole along the direction of the applied field. An interesting effect was observed for X = CHO and NO. The simultaneous catalysis and inhibition of the outward and inward transformation leads to a reversed ratio between outward and inward transformation, with the former being favored (stereochemical inversion). Such effect was not observed for X = BH2 (the strongest π-acceptor examined here). In this case, in the absence of the applied field, the difference between the inward and outward barriers is too large and the simultaneous catalysis and inhibition of the outward and inward transformation is not capable of determining the stereochemical inversion.
Mattioli E.J.; Bottoni A.; Zerbetto F.; Calvaresi M.
File in questo prodotto:
Eventuali allegati, non sono esposti

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/717275
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 12
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 11
social impact