Background: Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is the most important enteric virus infecting canids. It is a rapidly evolving virus; after its emergence in the 1970s, new antigenic variants (called CPV-2a, 2b and 2c) emerged and replaced the original antigenic type. The three antigenic variants are globally distributed with different frequencies and levels of genetic variability. This study focused on VP2 gene sequence analysis and the phylodynamics of CPV-2 which were detected in 123 dogs showing clinical signs of gastroenteritis collected in Italy from 1994 to 2017. Results: For the most part, the sick dogs were young, and a third of them (32.5%) had been vaccinated. No statistical association was found between the CPV-2 antigenic variants, and sex, age, breed and vaccination status. Sequence analysis showed that all three antigenic types circulated in Italy; the CPV-2a type was the prominent genotype, followed by CPV-2c and CPV-2b, with notable differences regarding regional bases and significant fluctuations over time. Nucleotide sequence data showed high genetic heterogeneity with 67 nucleotide sequence types (ntSTs) identified, corresponding to 21 amino acid sequence types (aaSTs). The aaSTs and ntSTs obtained were distributed differently among the three CPV-2 antigenic variants: CPV-2a grouped 12/21 (57.1%) aaSTs and 41/67 (61.2%) ntSTs; CPV-2b grouped 5/21 (23.8%) aaSTs and 6/67 (8.9%) ntSTs, and CPV-2c grouped 4/21 (19.1%) aaSTs and 20/67 (29.9%) ntSTs. Canine parvovirus 2a was characterised by the highest genetic variability while CPV-2c was characterised by notable stability with a predominant amino acid profile during the entire sampling time. Canine parvovirus 2b re-emerged in recent years, showing a new and distinctive amino acid profile of the VP2 protein. Conclusions: The findings of the present study provided new insights regarding the phylodynamics and evolution of CPV-2 in Italy, pointing out notable differences at the local level in the distribution of the CPV-2 variants and the selection of genetic subtypes. The evolution of CPV-2 has raised questions regarding the efficacy of vaccination; therefore, continuous monitoring regarding the evolution and spread of new CPV-2 variants should be a key aim of ongoing research.

Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus type 2 in Italy from 1994 to 2017: recurrence of the CPV-2b variant

Battilani M
;
Balboni A
2019

Abstract

Background: Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is the most important enteric virus infecting canids. It is a rapidly evolving virus; after its emergence in the 1970s, new antigenic variants (called CPV-2a, 2b and 2c) emerged and replaced the original antigenic type. The three antigenic variants are globally distributed with different frequencies and levels of genetic variability. This study focused on VP2 gene sequence analysis and the phylodynamics of CPV-2 which were detected in 123 dogs showing clinical signs of gastroenteritis collected in Italy from 1994 to 2017. Results: For the most part, the sick dogs were young, and a third of them (32.5%) had been vaccinated. No statistical association was found between the CPV-2 antigenic variants, and sex, age, breed and vaccination status. Sequence analysis showed that all three antigenic types circulated in Italy; the CPV-2a type was the prominent genotype, followed by CPV-2c and CPV-2b, with notable differences regarding regional bases and significant fluctuations over time. Nucleotide sequence data showed high genetic heterogeneity with 67 nucleotide sequence types (ntSTs) identified, corresponding to 21 amino acid sequence types (aaSTs). The aaSTs and ntSTs obtained were distributed differently among the three CPV-2 antigenic variants: CPV-2a grouped 12/21 (57.1%) aaSTs and 41/67 (61.2%) ntSTs; CPV-2b grouped 5/21 (23.8%) aaSTs and 6/67 (8.9%) ntSTs, and CPV-2c grouped 4/21 (19.1%) aaSTs and 20/67 (29.9%) ntSTs. Canine parvovirus 2a was characterised by the highest genetic variability while CPV-2c was characterised by notable stability with a predominant amino acid profile during the entire sampling time. Canine parvovirus 2b re-emerged in recent years, showing a new and distinctive amino acid profile of the VP2 protein. Conclusions: The findings of the present study provided new insights regarding the phylodynamics and evolution of CPV-2 in Italy, pointing out notable differences at the local level in the distribution of the CPV-2 variants and the selection of genetic subtypes. The evolution of CPV-2 has raised questions regarding the efficacy of vaccination; therefore, continuous monitoring regarding the evolution and spread of new CPV-2 variants should be a key aim of ongoing research.
2019
Battilani M, Modugno F, Mira F, Purpari G, Di Bella S, Guercio A, Balboni A
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/715616
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