Heteroplasmy is the presence of more than one type of mitochondrial genome within an individual, a condition commonly reported as unfavorable and affecting mitonuclear interactions. So far, no study has investigated heteroplasmy at protein level, and whether it occurs within tissues, cells, or even organelles. The only known evolutionarily stable and natural heteroplasmic system in Metazoa is the Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI)-reported so far in similar to 100 bivalve species-in which two mitochondrial lineages are present: one transmitted through eggs (F-type) and the other through sperm (M-type). Because of such segregation, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation proteins reach a high amino acid sequence divergence (up to 52%) between the two lineages in the same species. Natural heteroplasmy coupled with high sequence divergence between F- and M-type proteins provides a unique opportunity to study their expression and assess the level and extent of heteroplasmy. Here, for the first time, we immunolocalized F- and M-type variants of three mitochondrially-encoded proteins in the DUI species Ruditapes philippinarum, in germline and somatic tissues at different developmental stages. We found heteroplasmy at organelle level in undifferentiated germ cells of both sexes, and in male soma, whereas gametes were homoplasmic: eggs for the F-type and sperm for the M-type. Thus, during gametogenesis, only the sex-specific mitochondrial variant is maintained, likely due to a process of meiotic drive. We examine the implications of our results for DUI proposing a revised model, and we discuss interactions of mitochondria with germ plasm and their role in germline development. Molecular and phylogenetic evidence suggests that DUI evolved from the common Strictly Maternal Inheritance, so the two systems likely share the same underlying molecular mechanism, making DUI a useful system for studying mitochondrial biology.

Natural Heteroplasmy and Mitochondrial Inheritance in Bivalve Molluscs

Ghiselli F.;Maurizii M. G.;Pecci A.;Bettini S.;Passamonti M.;Franceschini V.;Milani L.
2019

Abstract

Heteroplasmy is the presence of more than one type of mitochondrial genome within an individual, a condition commonly reported as unfavorable and affecting mitonuclear interactions. So far, no study has investigated heteroplasmy at protein level, and whether it occurs within tissues, cells, or even organelles. The only known evolutionarily stable and natural heteroplasmic system in Metazoa is the Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI)-reported so far in similar to 100 bivalve species-in which two mitochondrial lineages are present: one transmitted through eggs (F-type) and the other through sperm (M-type). Because of such segregation, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation proteins reach a high amino acid sequence divergence (up to 52%) between the two lineages in the same species. Natural heteroplasmy coupled with high sequence divergence between F- and M-type proteins provides a unique opportunity to study their expression and assess the level and extent of heteroplasmy. Here, for the first time, we immunolocalized F- and M-type variants of three mitochondrially-encoded proteins in the DUI species Ruditapes philippinarum, in germline and somatic tissues at different developmental stages. We found heteroplasmy at organelle level in undifferentiated germ cells of both sexes, and in male soma, whereas gametes were homoplasmic: eggs for the F-type and sperm for the M-type. Thus, during gametogenesis, only the sex-specific mitochondrial variant is maintained, likely due to a process of meiotic drive. We examine the implications of our results for DUI proposing a revised model, and we discuss interactions of mitochondria with germ plasm and their role in germline development. Molecular and phylogenetic evidence suggests that DUI evolved from the common Strictly Maternal Inheritance, so the two systems likely share the same underlying molecular mechanism, making DUI a useful system for studying mitochondrial biology.
INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY
Ghiselli F.; Maurizii M.G.; Reunov A.; Arino-Bassols H.; Cifaldi C.; Pecci A.; Alexandrova Y.; Bettini S.; Passamonti M.; Franceschini V.; Milani L.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/704182
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