The presence of anthropic activity in the coastal or riverine environment modifies the wave as well as the water and sediment current regime. In particular, the body of water around ports is an area where intense currents and sediment transport rates are usually present and can be affected by low water velocities that take place close to the entrance and inside the port basin. Consequently, sediment can be entrained and accumulated in such areas, creating problems to navigation. Ports and moorings are filled with fine sediments due to deposition resulting from solid transport. In particular, silt particles settle because of the weak vertical and lateral shearing of the velocity field. The result is that harbours frequently require ordinary maintenance dredging.The dredging process involves the removal of sediment in its natural deposited condition by using either mechanical or hydraulic equipment. Dredging is a consolidated and proven technology, but involves considerable drawbacks. In particular, dredging has a notable environmental impact on marine flora and fauna, contributes to the mobility and diffusion of contaminants and pollutants already present in the silted sediments, obstructs navigation and is characterized by relatively high and low predictable costs.This paper aims to provide an original structured overview of technologies alternative to dredging that have been tested in the past 50 years. More than 150 articles have been analysed to compare standard dredging technologies with market-ready competitors from techno-economic and environmental perspectives. In particular, the paper focuses on anti-sedimentation infrastructures and on innovative plant solutions characterized by low maintenance costs and by a very limited environmental impact. The final aim of the paper is to describe the currently available technologies that prevent port inlet and channel siltation and to classify them through a techno-economic and environmental impact assessment. The comparison shows that dredging has both the higher costs and environmental impact, while fixed sand by-passing plants are characterized by the lowest environmental impact and operation costs that are competitive with dredging.

Sediment management in coastal infrastructures: Techno-economic and environmental impact assessment of alternative technologies to dredging

Bianchini A.;Cento F.;Guzzini A.;Pellegrini M.
;
Saccani C.
2019

Abstract

The presence of anthropic activity in the coastal or riverine environment modifies the wave as well as the water and sediment current regime. In particular, the body of water around ports is an area where intense currents and sediment transport rates are usually present and can be affected by low water velocities that take place close to the entrance and inside the port basin. Consequently, sediment can be entrained and accumulated in such areas, creating problems to navigation. Ports and moorings are filled with fine sediments due to deposition resulting from solid transport. In particular, silt particles settle because of the weak vertical and lateral shearing of the velocity field. The result is that harbours frequently require ordinary maintenance dredging.The dredging process involves the removal of sediment in its natural deposited condition by using either mechanical or hydraulic equipment. Dredging is a consolidated and proven technology, but involves considerable drawbacks. In particular, dredging has a notable environmental impact on marine flora and fauna, contributes to the mobility and diffusion of contaminants and pollutants already present in the silted sediments, obstructs navigation and is characterized by relatively high and low predictable costs.This paper aims to provide an original structured overview of technologies alternative to dredging that have been tested in the past 50 years. More than 150 articles have been analysed to compare standard dredging technologies with market-ready competitors from techno-economic and environmental perspectives. In particular, the paper focuses on anti-sedimentation infrastructures and on innovative plant solutions characterized by low maintenance costs and by a very limited environmental impact. The final aim of the paper is to describe the currently available technologies that prevent port inlet and channel siltation and to classify them through a techno-economic and environmental impact assessment. The comparison shows that dredging has both the higher costs and environmental impact, while fixed sand by-passing plants are characterized by the lowest environmental impact and operation costs that are competitive with dredging.
Bianchini A.; Cento F.; Guzzini A.; Pellegrini M.; Saccani C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/703986
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