We unveil the complex shape of a proto-supercluster at z ∼ 2.45 in the COSMOS field exploiting the synergy of both spectroscopic and photometric redshifts. Thanks to the spectroscopic redshifts of the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS), complemented by the zCOSMOS-Deep spectroscopic sample and high-quality photometric redshifts, we compute the three-dimensional (3D) overdensity field in a volume of ∼100 × 100 × 250 comoving Mpc3 in the central region of the COSMOS field, centred at z ∼ 2.45 along the line of sight. The method relies on a two-dimensional (2D) Voronoi tessellation in overlapping redshift slices that is converted into a 3D density field, where the galaxy distribution in each slice is constructed using a statistical treatment of both spectroscopic and photometric redshifts. In this volume, we identify a proto-supercluster, dubbed "Hyperion" for its immense size and mass, which extends over a volume of ∼60 × 60 × 150 comoving Mpc3 and has an estimated total mass of ∼4.8 × 1015 M⊙. This immensely complex structure contains at least seven density peaks within 2.4 ≲ z ≲ 2.5 connected by filaments that exceed the average density of the volume. We estimate the total mass of the individual peaks, Mtot, based on their inferred average matter density, and find a range of masses from ∼0.1 × 1014 M⊙ to ∼2.7 × 1014 M⊙. By using spectroscopic members of each peak, we obtain the velocity dispersion of the galaxies in the peaks, and then their virial mass Mvir (under the strong assumption that they are virialised). The agreement between Mvir and Mtot is surprisingly good, at less than 1-2σ, considering that (almost all) the peaks are probably not yet virialised. According to the spherical collapse model, these peaks have already started or are about to start collapsing, and they are all predicted to be virialised by redshift z ∼ 0.8-1.6. We finally perform a careful comparison with the literature, given that smaller components of this proto-supercluster had previously been identified using either heterogeneous galaxy samples (Lyα emitters, sub-mm starbursting galaxies, CO emitting galaxies) or 3D Lyα forest tomography on a smaller area. With VUDS, we obtain, for the first time across the central ∼1 deg2 of the COSMOS field, a panoramic view of this large structure, that encompasses, connects, and considerably expands in a homogeneous way on all previous detections of the various sub-components. The characteristics of this exceptional proto-supercluster, its redshift, its richness over a large volume, the clear detection of its sub-components, together with the extensive multi-wavelength imaging and spectroscopy granted by the COSMOS field, provide us the unique possibility to study a rich supercluster in formation.

The progeny of a cosmic titan: A massive multi-component proto-supercluster in formation at z = 2.45 in VUDS / Cucciati, O.; Lemaux, B.C.; Zamorani, G.; Le Fèvre, O.; Tasca, L.A.M.; Hathi, N.P.; Lee, K.-G.; Bardelli, S.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Pentericci, L.; Thomas, R.; Vanzella, E.; Zucca, E.; Lubin, L.M.; Amorin, R.; Cassarà, L.P.; Cimatti, A.; Talia, M.; Vergani, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Pforr, J.; Salvato, M.. - In: ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS. - ISSN 0004-6361. - STAMPA. - 619:(2018), pp. A49.A49-A49.A69. [10.1051/0004-6361/201833655]

The progeny of a cosmic titan: A massive multi-component proto-supercluster in formation at z = 2.45 in VUDS

Cimatti, A.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Talia, M.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2018

Abstract

We unveil the complex shape of a proto-supercluster at z ∼ 2.45 in the COSMOS field exploiting the synergy of both spectroscopic and photometric redshifts. Thanks to the spectroscopic redshifts of the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS), complemented by the zCOSMOS-Deep spectroscopic sample and high-quality photometric redshifts, we compute the three-dimensional (3D) overdensity field in a volume of ∼100 × 100 × 250 comoving Mpc3 in the central region of the COSMOS field, centred at z ∼ 2.45 along the line of sight. The method relies on a two-dimensional (2D) Voronoi tessellation in overlapping redshift slices that is converted into a 3D density field, where the galaxy distribution in each slice is constructed using a statistical treatment of both spectroscopic and photometric redshifts. In this volume, we identify a proto-supercluster, dubbed "Hyperion" for its immense size and mass, which extends over a volume of ∼60 × 60 × 150 comoving Mpc3 and has an estimated total mass of ∼4.8 × 1015 M⊙. This immensely complex structure contains at least seven density peaks within 2.4 ≲ z ≲ 2.5 connected by filaments that exceed the average density of the volume. We estimate the total mass of the individual peaks, Mtot, based on their inferred average matter density, and find a range of masses from ∼0.1 × 1014 M⊙ to ∼2.7 × 1014 M⊙. By using spectroscopic members of each peak, we obtain the velocity dispersion of the galaxies in the peaks, and then their virial mass Mvir (under the strong assumption that they are virialised). The agreement between Mvir and Mtot is surprisingly good, at less than 1-2σ, considering that (almost all) the peaks are probably not yet virialised. According to the spherical collapse model, these peaks have already started or are about to start collapsing, and they are all predicted to be virialised by redshift z ∼ 0.8-1.6. We finally perform a careful comparison with the literature, given that smaller components of this proto-supercluster had previously been identified using either heterogeneous galaxy samples (Lyα emitters, sub-mm starbursting galaxies, CO emitting galaxies) or 3D Lyα forest tomography on a smaller area. With VUDS, we obtain, for the first time across the central ∼1 deg2 of the COSMOS field, a panoramic view of this large structure, that encompasses, connects, and considerably expands in a homogeneous way on all previous detections of the various sub-components. The characteristics of this exceptional proto-supercluster, its redshift, its richness over a large volume, the clear detection of its sub-components, together with the extensive multi-wavelength imaging and spectroscopy granted by the COSMOS field, provide us the unique possibility to study a rich supercluster in formation.
2018
The progeny of a cosmic titan: A massive multi-component proto-supercluster in formation at z = 2.45 in VUDS / Cucciati, O.; Lemaux, B.C.; Zamorani, G.; Le Fèvre, O.; Tasca, L.A.M.; Hathi, N.P.; Lee, K.-G.; Bardelli, S.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Pentericci, L.; Thomas, R.; Vanzella, E.; Zucca, E.; Lubin, L.M.; Amorin, R.; Cassarà, L.P.; Cimatti, A.; Talia, M.; Vergani, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Pforr, J.; Salvato, M.. - In: ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS. - ISSN 0004-6361. - STAMPA. - 619:(2018), pp. A49.A49-A49.A69. [10.1051/0004-6361/201833655]
Cucciati, O.; Lemaux, B.C.; Zamorani, G.; Le Fèvre, O.; Tasca, L.A.M.; Hathi, N.P.; Lee, K.-G.; Bardelli, S.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Pentericci, L.; Thomas, R.; Vanzella, E.; Zucca, E.; Lubin, L.M.; Amorin, R.; Cassarà, L.P.; Cimatti, A.; Talia, M.; Vergani, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Pforr, J.; Salvato, M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/667443
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