Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is an ongoing health problem in southern Europe, where dogs are considered the main reservoirs of the disease. Current data point to a northward spread of VL and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Italy, with new foci in northern regions previously regarded as non-endemic. Methodology/Principal findings: Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) was performed to investigate genetic diversity and population structure of L. infantum on 55 samples from infected humans, dogs and sand flies of the E-R region between 2013 and 2017. E-R samples were compared with 10 L. infantum samples from VL cases in other Italian regions (extra E-R) and with 52 strains within the L. donovani complex. Data displayed significant microsatellite polymorphisms with low allelic heterozygosity. Forty-one unique and eight repeated MLMT profiles were recognized among the L. infantum samples from E-R, and ten unique MLMT profiles were assigned to the extra E-R samples. Bayesian analysis assigned E-R samples to two distinct populations, with further sub-structuring within each of them; all CanL samples belonged to one population, genetically related to Mediterranean MON-1 strains, while all but one VL cases as well as the isolate from the sand fly Phlebotomus perfiliewi fell under the second population. Conversely, VL samples from other Italian regions proved to be genetically similar to strains circulating in dogs. Conclusions/Significance: A peculiar epidemiological situation was observed in northeastern Italy, with the co-circulation of two distinct populations of L. infantum; one population mainly detected in dogs and the other population detected in humans and in a sand fly. While the classical cycle of CanL in Italy fits well into the data obtained for the first population, the population found in infected humans exhibits a different cycle, probably not involving a canine reservoir. This study can contribute to a better understanding of the population structure of L. infantum circulating in northeastern Italy, thus providing useful epidemiologic information for public health authorities.

Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) reveals host-related population structure in Leishmania infantum from northeastern Italy / Rugna, Gianluca*; Carra, Elena; Bergamini, Federica; Calzolari, Mattia; Salvatore, Daniela; Corpus, Francesco; Gennari, William; Baldelli, Raffaella; Fabbi, Massimo; Natalini, Silvano; Vitale, Fabrizio; Varani, Stefania; Merialdi, Giuseppe. - In: PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES. - ISSN 1935-2727. - STAMPA. - 12:7(2018), pp. e0006595.1-e0006595.18. [10.1371/journal.pntd.0006595]

Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) reveals host-related population structure in Leishmania infantum from northeastern Italy

Salvatore, Daniela;Baldelli, Raffaella;NATALINI, SILVANO;Varani, Stefania;
2018

Abstract

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is an ongoing health problem in southern Europe, where dogs are considered the main reservoirs of the disease. Current data point to a northward spread of VL and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Italy, with new foci in northern regions previously regarded as non-endemic. Methodology/Principal findings: Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) was performed to investigate genetic diversity and population structure of L. infantum on 55 samples from infected humans, dogs and sand flies of the E-R region between 2013 and 2017. E-R samples were compared with 10 L. infantum samples from VL cases in other Italian regions (extra E-R) and with 52 strains within the L. donovani complex. Data displayed significant microsatellite polymorphisms with low allelic heterozygosity. Forty-one unique and eight repeated MLMT profiles were recognized among the L. infantum samples from E-R, and ten unique MLMT profiles were assigned to the extra E-R samples. Bayesian analysis assigned E-R samples to two distinct populations, with further sub-structuring within each of them; all CanL samples belonged to one population, genetically related to Mediterranean MON-1 strains, while all but one VL cases as well as the isolate from the sand fly Phlebotomus perfiliewi fell under the second population. Conversely, VL samples from other Italian regions proved to be genetically similar to strains circulating in dogs. Conclusions/Significance: A peculiar epidemiological situation was observed in northeastern Italy, with the co-circulation of two distinct populations of L. infantum; one population mainly detected in dogs and the other population detected in humans and in a sand fly. While the classical cycle of CanL in Italy fits well into the data obtained for the first population, the population found in infected humans exhibits a different cycle, probably not involving a canine reservoir. This study can contribute to a better understanding of the population structure of L. infantum circulating in northeastern Italy, thus providing useful epidemiologic information for public health authorities.
2018
Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) reveals host-related population structure in Leishmania infantum from northeastern Italy / Rugna, Gianluca*; Carra, Elena; Bergamini, Federica; Calzolari, Mattia; Salvatore, Daniela; Corpus, Francesco; Gennari, William; Baldelli, Raffaella; Fabbi, Massimo; Natalini, Silvano; Vitale, Fabrizio; Varani, Stefania; Merialdi, Giuseppe. - In: PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES. - ISSN 1935-2727. - STAMPA. - 12:7(2018), pp. e0006595.1-e0006595.18. [10.1371/journal.pntd.0006595]
Rugna, Gianluca*; Carra, Elena; Bergamini, Federica; Calzolari, Mattia; Salvatore, Daniela; Corpus, Francesco; Gennari, William; Baldelli, Raffaella; Fabbi, Massimo; Natalini, Silvano; Vitale, Fabrizio; Varani, Stefania; Merialdi, Giuseppe
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/659255
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