In the next generation of cellular networks, it is desirable to use single access points both for communication and localization. This could be made possible thanks to the combination of femtocells, mm-wave technology and massive antenna arrays, and would overcome the problem of having an over-sized infrastructure for positioning which is, nowadays, the bottleneck for the widespread diffusion of indoor localization systems. In this context, our paper aims at investigating the localization and orientation performance limits employing massive arrays both at the access point and mobile side. To this end, we first asymptotically demonstrate the tightness of the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) in the massive array regime and that the effect of multipath can be made negligible even for practical values of SNR levels. Successively, we propose a comparison between two different transmitter configurations, namely multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), where orthogonal waveforms are sent, and beamforming, which takes advantage of highly correlated waveforms and directive array patterns. We also consider random weighting as a trade-off between the diversity gain of MIMO and the high directivity guaranteed by the beamforming. CRB results show the interplay between diversity and beamforming gain as well as the benefits achievable by varying the number of antennas in terms of localization accuracy and multipath mitigation.

Single-Anchor Localization and Orientation Performance Limits Using Massive Arrays: MIMO vs. Beamforming

Guerra, Anna;Guidi, Francesco;Dardari, Davide
2018

Abstract

In the next generation of cellular networks, it is desirable to use single access points both for communication and localization. This could be made possible thanks to the combination of femtocells, mm-wave technology and massive antenna arrays, and would overcome the problem of having an over-sized infrastructure for positioning which is, nowadays, the bottleneck for the widespread diffusion of indoor localization systems. In this context, our paper aims at investigating the localization and orientation performance limits employing massive arrays both at the access point and mobile side. To this end, we first asymptotically demonstrate the tightness of the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) in the massive array regime and that the effect of multipath can be made negligible even for practical values of SNR levels. Successively, we propose a comparison between two different transmitter configurations, namely multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), where orthogonal waveforms are sent, and beamforming, which takes advantage of highly correlated waveforms and directive array patterns. We also consider random weighting as a trade-off between the diversity gain of MIMO and the high directivity guaranteed by the beamforming. CRB results show the interplay between diversity and beamforming gain as well as the benefits achievable by varying the number of antennas in terms of localization accuracy and multipath mitigation.
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS
Guerra, Anna; Guidi, Francesco; Dardari, Davide
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/651718
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