Background: alpha-Mangostin (a-MG) is extracted from Garcinia mangostana Linn and exerts antiproliferative activities. Although several researches on a-MG were performed using cell monolayers, the in vitro pharmacological effects on 3D cancer models have never been investigated. Aim of the present study was to find new anticancer properties of a-MG by evaluating the changes that this compound provokes in multicellular tumour spheroids (MCTSs). Methods: MCTSs were generated from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast tumour cell lines and then treated with 0.1-30 µg/ml a-MG for 24 and 48 h. MCTS size, density, and cell migration were determined by software elaboration of phase contrast images captured by a digital camera. Cell viability was evaluated by resazurin and acid phosphatase assays, while cell apoptosis was assessed by a fluorescent assay of caspase activity. The distribution of living cells inside MCTSs was shown by live/dead fluorescence staining. Results: A dose-dependent decrease in cell viability was obtained by treating MDA-MB-231 spheroids with a-MG for 48 h (IC50 = 0.70-1.25 µg/ml). A significant reduction in spheroid volume, paralleled by its increased compactness, was observed only at concentration of 30 µg/ml, but not with lower doses of a-MG. By contrast, a-MG in the range of 5-15 µg/ml increased the size of MCTSs due to a parallel reduction in cell aggregation. The same window of concentrations was also able to stimulate cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Bimodal volumetric effects were also obtained by treating the spheroids generated from the MCF-7 cells with 0.1·30 µg/ml a-MG for 48 h. Finally, doses higher than 5 µg/ml caused a progressive impairment in cell migration from the edge of MDA-MB-231 MCTSs. Conclusion: After exposure at doses of a-MG just above IC50, MDA-MB-231 spheroids showed a significant reduction in cell adhesion that did not stimulate cell migration but, on the contrary, blunted cell motility. These findings suggest a novel anticancer feature of a-MG that could be taken into consideration to improve conventional drug penetration into the tumour bulk.

Effects of alpha-mangostin on viability, growth and cohesion of multicellular spheroids derived from human breast cancer cell lines

Scolamiero, Giuseppe;Pazzini, Claudia;Bonafé, Francesca;Guarnieri, Carlo;Muscari, Claudio
2018

Abstract

Background: alpha-Mangostin (a-MG) is extracted from Garcinia mangostana Linn and exerts antiproliferative activities. Although several researches on a-MG were performed using cell monolayers, the in vitro pharmacological effects on 3D cancer models have never been investigated. Aim of the present study was to find new anticancer properties of a-MG by evaluating the changes that this compound provokes in multicellular tumour spheroids (MCTSs). Methods: MCTSs were generated from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast tumour cell lines and then treated with 0.1-30 µg/ml a-MG for 24 and 48 h. MCTS size, density, and cell migration were determined by software elaboration of phase contrast images captured by a digital camera. Cell viability was evaluated by resazurin and acid phosphatase assays, while cell apoptosis was assessed by a fluorescent assay of caspase activity. The distribution of living cells inside MCTSs was shown by live/dead fluorescence staining. Results: A dose-dependent decrease in cell viability was obtained by treating MDA-MB-231 spheroids with a-MG for 48 h (IC50 = 0.70-1.25 µg/ml). A significant reduction in spheroid volume, paralleled by its increased compactness, was observed only at concentration of 30 µg/ml, but not with lower doses of a-MG. By contrast, a-MG in the range of 5-15 µg/ml increased the size of MCTSs due to a parallel reduction in cell aggregation. The same window of concentrations was also able to stimulate cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Bimodal volumetric effects were also obtained by treating the spheroids generated from the MCF-7 cells with 0.1·30 µg/ml a-MG for 48 h. Finally, doses higher than 5 µg/ml caused a progressive impairment in cell migration from the edge of MDA-MB-231 MCTSs. Conclusion: After exposure at doses of a-MG just above IC50, MDA-MB-231 spheroids showed a significant reduction in cell adhesion that did not stimulate cell migration but, on the contrary, blunted cell motility. These findings suggest a novel anticancer feature of a-MG that could be taken into consideration to improve conventional drug penetration into the tumour bulk.
Scolamiero, Giuseppe; Pazzini, Claudia; Bonafé, Francesca; Guarnieri, Carlo; Muscari, Claudio
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/619486
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