In the first part of this paper we review a mathematical model for the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that was developed in subsequent steps over several years. The model is meant to describe the evolution of AD in vivo. In Achdou et al (2013 J. Math. Biol. 67 1369-92) we treated the problem at a microscopic scale, where the typical length scale is a multiple of the size of the soma of a single neuron. Subsequently, in Bertsch et al (2017 Math. Med. Biol. 34 193-214) we concentrated on the macroscopic scale, where brain neurons are regarded as a continuous medium, structured by their degree of malfunctioning. In the second part of the paper we consider the relation between the microscopic and the macroscopic models. In particular we show under which assumptions the kinetic transport equation, which in the macroscopic model governs the evolution of the probability measure for the degree of malfunctioning of neurons, can be derived from a particle-based setting. The models are based on aggregation and diffusion equations for β-Amyloid (Aβ from now on), a protein fragment that healthy brains regularly produce and eliminate. In case of dementia Aβ monomers are no longer properly washed out and begin to coalesce forming eventually plaques. Two different mechanisms are assumed to be relevant for the temporal evolution of the disease: (i) diffusion and agglomeration of soluble polymers of amyloid, produced by damaged neurons; (ii) neuron-to-neuron prion-like transmission. In the microscopic model we consider mechanism (i), modelling it by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration (describing the agglomeration phenomenon), with the addition of a diffusion term as well as of a source term on the neuronal membrane. At the macroscopic level instead we model processes (i) and (ii) by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration, coupled to a kinetic-type transport equation for the distribution function of the degree of malfunctioning of the neurons. The transport equation contains an integral term describing the random onset of the disease as a jump process localized in particularly sensitive areas of the brain.

Microscopic and macroscopic models for the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease

Franchi, Bruno;Tesi, Maria Carla
;
2017

Abstract

In the first part of this paper we review a mathematical model for the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that was developed in subsequent steps over several years. The model is meant to describe the evolution of AD in vivo. In Achdou et al (2013 J. Math. Biol. 67 1369-92) we treated the problem at a microscopic scale, where the typical length scale is a multiple of the size of the soma of a single neuron. Subsequently, in Bertsch et al (2017 Math. Med. Biol. 34 193-214) we concentrated on the macroscopic scale, where brain neurons are regarded as a continuous medium, structured by their degree of malfunctioning. In the second part of the paper we consider the relation between the microscopic and the macroscopic models. In particular we show under which assumptions the kinetic transport equation, which in the macroscopic model governs the evolution of the probability measure for the degree of malfunctioning of neurons, can be derived from a particle-based setting. The models are based on aggregation and diffusion equations for β-Amyloid (Aβ from now on), a protein fragment that healthy brains regularly produce and eliminate. In case of dementia Aβ monomers are no longer properly washed out and begin to coalesce forming eventually plaques. Two different mechanisms are assumed to be relevant for the temporal evolution of the disease: (i) diffusion and agglomeration of soluble polymers of amyloid, produced by damaged neurons; (ii) neuron-to-neuron prion-like transmission. In the microscopic model we consider mechanism (i), modelling it by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration (describing the agglomeration phenomenon), with the addition of a diffusion term as well as of a source term on the neuronal membrane. At the macroscopic level instead we model processes (i) and (ii) by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration, coupled to a kinetic-type transport equation for the distribution function of the degree of malfunctioning of the neurons. The transport equation contains an integral term describing the random onset of the disease as a jump process localized in particularly sensitive areas of the brain.
Bertsch, Michiel; Franchi, Bruno; Tesi, Maria Carla; Tosin, Andrea
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/616713
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