Introduction: Non-coeliac gluten/wheat sensitivity (NCG/WS) is a syndrome characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms occurring a few hours or days after the ingestion of gluten and wheat proteins in patients testing negative for coeliac disease and wheat allergy. Areas covered: The present review deals with recent scientific acquisitions of this gluten-related syndrome, including pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical picture, symptom score, biomarkers and double-blind placebo-controlled trial for diagnosis, and treatment. The methodology used was a literature search on NCG/WS using Medline and Premedline from 1970 to August 2016. Expert commentary: We discussed the pathogenesis of symptom generation and altered gut physiology in NCG/WS. Possible mechanisms include innate and adaptive immune activation, impaired intestinal epithelial barrier and changes in gut microbiome. These interlinked factors may be exploited for their clinical relevance as possible biomarkers. A systemic immune response to microbial and wheat antigens, together with intestinal cell damage, occurs in patients with NCG/WS. Due to the lack of established biomarkers, it is mandatory to validate the diagnosis of the syndrome by means of a well-defined work-up involving dietary challenge. Finally, dietary and other therapeutic indications have been thoroughly reviewed.

Non-coeliac gluten/wheat sensitivity: advances in knowledge and relevant questions

Volta, Umberto;Caio, Giacomo Pietro Ismaele;KARUNARATNE, TENNEKOON MUDIYANSELAGE PRASANTHA BUDDHIKA;De Giorgio, Roberto
2017

Abstract

Introduction: Non-coeliac gluten/wheat sensitivity (NCG/WS) is a syndrome characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms occurring a few hours or days after the ingestion of gluten and wheat proteins in patients testing negative for coeliac disease and wheat allergy. Areas covered: The present review deals with recent scientific acquisitions of this gluten-related syndrome, including pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical picture, symptom score, biomarkers and double-blind placebo-controlled trial for diagnosis, and treatment. The methodology used was a literature search on NCG/WS using Medline and Premedline from 1970 to August 2016. Expert commentary: We discussed the pathogenesis of symptom generation and altered gut physiology in NCG/WS. Possible mechanisms include innate and adaptive immune activation, impaired intestinal epithelial barrier and changes in gut microbiome. These interlinked factors may be exploited for their clinical relevance as possible biomarkers. A systemic immune response to microbial and wheat antigens, together with intestinal cell damage, occurs in patients with NCG/WS. Due to the lack of established biomarkers, it is mandatory to validate the diagnosis of the syndrome by means of a well-defined work-up involving dietary challenge. Finally, dietary and other therapeutic indications have been thoroughly reviewed.
Volta, Umberto; Caio, GIACOMO PIETRO ISMAELE; Karunaratne, TENNEKOON MUDIYANSELAGE PRASANTHA BUDDHIKA; Alaedini, Armin; DE GIORGIO, Roberto
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/611456
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