Introduction High-resolution genome-wide profiling analysis of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) samples has identified many novel somatic genetic alterations, several of which have clear implications for risk stratification or future therapeutic targeting. However, most of the studies focused on children and therefore a deep molecular characterization of adults is still challenging, especially for those cases lacking recurrent fusion genes. Subjects and Methods In order to shed light on the molecular features of this ALL subgroup, we retrospectively analyzed 28 newly diagnosed BCR-ABL1-negative BCP-ALL subjects (19 males/9 females; median age 41.5 years; negative for known fusion genes) and 28 BCR-ABL1-positive BCP-ALL subjects as a comparison group, since it represents the most frequent genetic subgroup in adults with ALL. In BCR-ABL1-negative ALL karyotype was normal in 10/28 (36%), showed abnormalities in 5/28 (18%) and failed or was not available in 13/28 (46%) cases. The overall survival rate was very poor with a median of 14 months (range, 1-75). We analyzed copy number alterations (CNA) of IKZF1, CDKN2A/B, PAX5, EBF1, ETV6, BTG1, RB1, and genes within PAR1: CRLF2, CSF2RA, IL3RA by the SALSA MLPA kit P335 IKZF1 (MRC Holland). In addition, mutation status was assessed for TP53, CRLF2, JAK2, LEF1, PAX5 and IL7R by next-generation deep-sequencing (NGS) (Roche Applied Science; IRON-II study oligonucleotide primer plates). Positivity for newly described BCR-JAK2, PAX5-JAK2, ETV6-ABL1, EBF1-PDGFRB, NUP-ABL1 gene fusions occurring in BCR-ABL1-like ALL (Roberts KG et al., Cancer Cell. 2012) was assessed by PCR amplification and sequencing. Finally, SNP arrays (SNP 6.0, Affymetrix) and gene expression profile analyses (GeneChip® Human Transcriptome Array 2.0) were performed to more fully assess genomic complexity. Results Overall, 76% of BCR-ABL1-negative subjects showed an abnormality of at least one of the analyzed genes: 7 (25%) had one, 4 (14%) had two, 6 (21%) had three, and 6 (21%) had four or more alterations. In subjects showing no abnormalities, SNP arrays analysis revealed amplifications of chromosome 1q in 2/6 cases (33%). Deletions of CDKN2A/B were the most frequent (39%) and in 73%, they occurred together with other abnormalities, suggesting that multiple events are needed to induce the full leukemia phenotype. Other common CNA included: deletions of IKZF1 (25%), ETV6 (25%), PAX5 (14%), EBF1 (11%), PAR1 region (11%) and RB1 (7%). NGS showed mutations of TP53 in 18% of cases (W147*, V172L/G, G245C, Del244-246, D259Y), while JAK2 and CRLF2 were mutated in 7% (R683S/G) and 4% (F232C), respectively. No positivity for newly described fusion genes activating tyrosine kinase was confirmed. Importantly, subjects with no abnormalities showed better survival rates compared to those with one or more molecular alterations (p < 0.01). The BCR-ABL1-positive subgroup shared the same CNA of BCR-ABL1-negative cases, such as deletions of IKZF1 (71%), CDKN2A/B (21%), PAX5 (14%), BTG1 (11%), EBF1 (11%), and ETV6 (4%), but they did not show mutations in the analyzed genes. Conclusions BCP-ALL lacking recurrent fusion genes is a highly heterogeneous and complex disease. Current diagnostic procedures need to be revised to improve risk assessment and to guide therapeutic decisions.

Adult B-Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (BC-ALL) Negative For Recurrent Fusion Genes Are Characterized By a High Complex Genetic Heterogeneity Influencing Prognosis

Ferrari, Anna;Robustelli, Valentina;Papayannidis, Cristina;ZUNTINI, ROBERTA;Maria Chiara Abbenante,;Venturi, Claudia;LONETTI, ANNALISA;GUADAGNUOLO, VIVIANA;Soverini, Simona;Parisi, Sarah;Sartor, Chiara;
2013

Abstract

Introduction High-resolution genome-wide profiling analysis of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) samples has identified many novel somatic genetic alterations, several of which have clear implications for risk stratification or future therapeutic targeting. However, most of the studies focused on children and therefore a deep molecular characterization of adults is still challenging, especially for those cases lacking recurrent fusion genes. Subjects and Methods In order to shed light on the molecular features of this ALL subgroup, we retrospectively analyzed 28 newly diagnosed BCR-ABL1-negative BCP-ALL subjects (19 males/9 females; median age 41.5 years; negative for known fusion genes) and 28 BCR-ABL1-positive BCP-ALL subjects as a comparison group, since it represents the most frequent genetic subgroup in adults with ALL. In BCR-ABL1-negative ALL karyotype was normal in 10/28 (36%), showed abnormalities in 5/28 (18%) and failed or was not available in 13/28 (46%) cases. The overall survival rate was very poor with a median of 14 months (range, 1-75). We analyzed copy number alterations (CNA) of IKZF1, CDKN2A/B, PAX5, EBF1, ETV6, BTG1, RB1, and genes within PAR1: CRLF2, CSF2RA, IL3RA by the SALSA MLPA kit P335 IKZF1 (MRC Holland). In addition, mutation status was assessed for TP53, CRLF2, JAK2, LEF1, PAX5 and IL7R by next-generation deep-sequencing (NGS) (Roche Applied Science; IRON-II study oligonucleotide primer plates). Positivity for newly described BCR-JAK2, PAX5-JAK2, ETV6-ABL1, EBF1-PDGFRB, NUP-ABL1 gene fusions occurring in BCR-ABL1-like ALL (Roberts KG et al., Cancer Cell. 2012) was assessed by PCR amplification and sequencing. Finally, SNP arrays (SNP 6.0, Affymetrix) and gene expression profile analyses (GeneChip® Human Transcriptome Array 2.0) were performed to more fully assess genomic complexity. Results Overall, 76% of BCR-ABL1-negative subjects showed an abnormality of at least one of the analyzed genes: 7 (25%) had one, 4 (14%) had two, 6 (21%) had three, and 6 (21%) had four or more alterations. In subjects showing no abnormalities, SNP arrays analysis revealed amplifications of chromosome 1q in 2/6 cases (33%). Deletions of CDKN2A/B were the most frequent (39%) and in 73%, they occurred together with other abnormalities, suggesting that multiple events are needed to induce the full leukemia phenotype. Other common CNA included: deletions of IKZF1 (25%), ETV6 (25%), PAX5 (14%), EBF1 (11%), PAR1 region (11%) and RB1 (7%). NGS showed mutations of TP53 in 18% of cases (W147*, V172L/G, G245C, Del244-246, D259Y), while JAK2 and CRLF2 were mutated in 7% (R683S/G) and 4% (F232C), respectively. No positivity for newly described fusion genes activating tyrosine kinase was confirmed. Importantly, subjects with no abnormalities showed better survival rates compared to those with one or more molecular alterations (p < 0.01). The BCR-ABL1-positive subgroup shared the same CNA of BCR-ABL1-negative cases, such as deletions of IKZF1 (71%), CDKN2A/B (21%), PAX5 (14%), BTG1 (11%), EBF1 (11%), and ETV6 (4%), but they did not show mutations in the analyzed genes. Conclusions BCP-ALL lacking recurrent fusion genes is a highly heterogeneous and complex disease. Current diagnostic procedures need to be revised to improve risk assessment and to guide therapeutic decisions.
vol. 122 no. 21 2622
2622
2622
BLOOD
Iacobucci, Ilaria; Ferrari, Anna; Perricone, Margherita; Robustelli, Valentina; Papayannidis, Cristina; Zuntini, Roberta; Maria Chiara Abbenante, ; Venturi, Claudia; Baldazzi, Carmen; Ottaviani, Emanuela; Giannini, Barbara; Ghelli Luserna Di Rorà, Andrea; Lonetti, Annalisa; Vitale, Antonella; Elia, Loredana; Guadagnuolo, Viviana; Testoni, Nicoletta; Soverini, Simona; Paolini, Stefania; Parisi, Sarah; Sartor, Chiara; Cattina, Federica; Russo, Domenico; Foà, Robin; Chiaretti, Sabina; Kohlmann, Alexander; Martinelli, Giovanni
File in questo prodotto:
Eventuali allegati, non sono esposti

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/605000
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
social impact