In this paper, simultaneous GPS time-stamped measurements of the electric and magnetic fields at three distances and of the return stroke current associated with lightning strikes to the Toronto CN Tower (553 m) during the summer of 2005 are presented. The lightning return stroke current was measured using a Rogowski coil installed at a height of 474 m above ground level (AGL). The vertical component of the electric field and the azimuthal component of the magnetic field were measured simultaneously at distances of 2.0 km, 16.8 km, and 50.9 km from the CN Tower. The propagation path from the CN Tower to the first two stations (2.0 and 16.8 km) was along the soil and through the Toronto city, whereas for the third location (50.9 km) the propagation path was nearly entirely across Lake Ontario. The waveforms of the electric and magnetic fields at 16.8 km and 50.9 km exhibit a first zero crossing about 5 ms after the onset of the return stroke. This early zero crossing is part of a narrow undershoot. For fields at 50.9 km the expected zero crossing at about 40 ms is also observed. Metallic beams and other conducting parts in buildings on which electric and magnetic field sensors were located cause an enhancement effect on the measured fields. Although an enhancement can be identified both on the electric and the magnetic fields, the degree of enhancement is actually more significant for the electric field than for the magnetic field. It is shown that the value of the wave impedance (E-field peak to H-field peak ratio) could give an estimate of the enhancement effect of the building on the electric field. Propagation effects (decrease of field amplitude and increase of its risetime) can also be observed in experimental records. It is shown that the fields at 50.9 km are less affected by such attenuation, compared to those at 16.8 km, presumably because the path of propagation is mostly across Lake Ontario. Measured waveforms are compared with theoretical predictions obtained using the five engineering return stroke models extended to include the presence of the strike object, namely, transmission line (TL), modified transmission line (MTLL and MTLE), Bruce-Golde (BG), and traveling current source (TCS) models. A reasonable agreement is found with all five engineering models for the magnetic field waveforms at the three considered distances, although the peak values of the computed fields are systematically about 25% lower than measured values. None of the models was able to reproduce the early zero crossing and the narrow undershoot. As far as the electric field is concerned, larger differences have been observed between simulations and measurements. This may be due to the fact that the enhancement effect of the building on the electric field is stronger than that on the magnetic field. The expression relating current and field peaks associated with strikes to tall structures is also tested versus obtained sets of experimental data. The overall agreement between the theoretically predicted and the experimentally observed field-to-current ratio is reasonable, although the formula of Bermudez et al. (2005) appears also to underestimate the experimentally measured ratio (by about 25%). This may be due, at least in part, to the enhancement effect of the buildings on which the field measurement antennae were installed.

D. Pavanello, F. Rachidi, W. Janischewskyj, M. Rubinstein, A.M. Hussein, E. Petrache, et al. (2007). On Return-Stroke Currents and Remote Electromagnetic Fields Associated with Lightning Strikes to Tall Structures. Part II: Experiment and Model Validation. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, 112-D13122, 1-12 [10.1029/2006JD007959].

On Return-Stroke Currents and Remote Electromagnetic Fields Associated with Lightning Strikes to Tall Structures. Part II: Experiment and Model Validation

NUCCI, CARLO ALBERTO;
2007

Abstract

In this paper, simultaneous GPS time-stamped measurements of the electric and magnetic fields at three distances and of the return stroke current associated with lightning strikes to the Toronto CN Tower (553 m) during the summer of 2005 are presented. The lightning return stroke current was measured using a Rogowski coil installed at a height of 474 m above ground level (AGL). The vertical component of the electric field and the azimuthal component of the magnetic field were measured simultaneously at distances of 2.0 km, 16.8 km, and 50.9 km from the CN Tower. The propagation path from the CN Tower to the first two stations (2.0 and 16.8 km) was along the soil and through the Toronto city, whereas for the third location (50.9 km) the propagation path was nearly entirely across Lake Ontario. The waveforms of the electric and magnetic fields at 16.8 km and 50.9 km exhibit a first zero crossing about 5 ms after the onset of the return stroke. This early zero crossing is part of a narrow undershoot. For fields at 50.9 km the expected zero crossing at about 40 ms is also observed. Metallic beams and other conducting parts in buildings on which electric and magnetic field sensors were located cause an enhancement effect on the measured fields. Although an enhancement can be identified both on the electric and the magnetic fields, the degree of enhancement is actually more significant for the electric field than for the magnetic field. It is shown that the value of the wave impedance (E-field peak to H-field peak ratio) could give an estimate of the enhancement effect of the building on the electric field. Propagation effects (decrease of field amplitude and increase of its risetime) can also be observed in experimental records. It is shown that the fields at 50.9 km are less affected by such attenuation, compared to those at 16.8 km, presumably because the path of propagation is mostly across Lake Ontario. Measured waveforms are compared with theoretical predictions obtained using the five engineering return stroke models extended to include the presence of the strike object, namely, transmission line (TL), modified transmission line (MTLL and MTLE), Bruce-Golde (BG), and traveling current source (TCS) models. A reasonable agreement is found with all five engineering models for the magnetic field waveforms at the three considered distances, although the peak values of the computed fields are systematically about 25% lower than measured values. None of the models was able to reproduce the early zero crossing and the narrow undershoot. As far as the electric field is concerned, larger differences have been observed between simulations and measurements. This may be due to the fact that the enhancement effect of the building on the electric field is stronger than that on the magnetic field. The expression relating current and field peaks associated with strikes to tall structures is also tested versus obtained sets of experimental data. The overall agreement between the theoretically predicted and the experimentally observed field-to-current ratio is reasonable, although the formula of Bermudez et al. (2005) appears also to underestimate the experimentally measured ratio (by about 25%). This may be due, at least in part, to the enhancement effect of the buildings on which the field measurement antennae were installed.
2007
D. Pavanello, F. Rachidi, W. Janischewskyj, M. Rubinstein, A.M. Hussein, E. Petrache, et al. (2007). On Return-Stroke Currents and Remote Electromagnetic Fields Associated with Lightning Strikes to Tall Structures. Part II: Experiment and Model Validation. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, 112-D13122, 1-12 [10.1029/2006JD007959].
D. Pavanello; F. Rachidi; W. Janischewskyj; M. Rubinstein; A.M. Hussein; E. Petrache; V. Shostak; I. Boev; C.A. Nucci; W.A. Chisholm; M. Nyffeler; J.S...espandi
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/57756
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