A semi-field experiment was carried out in two peach orchards in northern Italy to assess mortality due to predators and parasitoids on the exotic coccinellid Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in comparison with the native coccinellid Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). The experiments were conducted in cages to avoid the possible escape of the exotic ladybird (not yet established in Italy). Two kinds of cage experiments were included: ‘exclusion cages’ (access by walking predators impeded) and ‘free cages’ (walking predators free to enter). The cages, containing all the stages of the two ladybird species, were placed in two localities and left for 24 h. All ladybird stages used for the semi-field experiments came from a laboratory rearing. The eggs of H. axyridis experienced less mortality than those of A. bipunctata. The ant workers were the most frequent predators in ‘free cages’ but A. bipunctata cannibalism on eggs was also detected. Larvae of both coccinellid species were predated equally but larval predation of L1 and L2 was higher in comparison to predation of L3 and L4. Pupae and adults of both exotic and native ladybirds were never attacked by predators. Predation on younger larval stages was higher in the ‘free cages’ in comparison with ‘exclusion cages’. No ladybird parasitisation was observed. The ‘free cage’ technique seems to provide a standardised and realistic estimation of predation impact but more studies are needed to evaluate ladybird parasitisation in semi-field conditions.

Estimation of mortality by entomophages on exotic Harmonia axyridis versus native Adalia bipunctata in semi-field conditions in northern Italy

BURGIO, GIOVANNI;LANZONI, ALBERTO;ACCINELLI, GIANUMBERTO;MAINI, STEFANO
2008

Abstract

A semi-field experiment was carried out in two peach orchards in northern Italy to assess mortality due to predators and parasitoids on the exotic coccinellid Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in comparison with the native coccinellid Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). The experiments were conducted in cages to avoid the possible escape of the exotic ladybird (not yet established in Italy). Two kinds of cage experiments were included: ‘exclusion cages’ (access by walking predators impeded) and ‘free cages’ (walking predators free to enter). The cages, containing all the stages of the two ladybird species, were placed in two localities and left for 24 h. All ladybird stages used for the semi-field experiments came from a laboratory rearing. The eggs of H. axyridis experienced less mortality than those of A. bipunctata. The ant workers were the most frequent predators in ‘free cages’ but A. bipunctata cannibalism on eggs was also detected. Larvae of both coccinellid species were predated equally but larval predation of L1 and L2 was higher in comparison to predation of L3 and L4. Pupae and adults of both exotic and native ladybirds were never attacked by predators. Predation on younger larval stages was higher in the ‘free cages’ in comparison with ‘exclusion cages’. No ladybird parasitisation was observed. The ‘free cage’ technique seems to provide a standardised and realistic estimation of predation impact but more studies are needed to evaluate ladybird parasitisation in semi-field conditions.
2008
BURGIO G.; LANZONI A.; ACCINELLI G.; MAINI S.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/55434
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