Infections caused by gram-negative bacteria (GNB) resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics are increasing in many hospitals. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in particular are now endemic in many parts of the world and represent a serious public health threat. In this era, antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential as targeted and responsible use of antibiotics improves patient outcomes and hopefully limits the selective pressure that drives the further emergence of resistance. However, some stewardship strategies aimed at promoting carbapenem-sparing regimens remain controversial and are difficult to implement when resistance rates to non-carbapenem antibiotics are increasing. Coordinated efforts between stewardship programs and infection control are essential for reversing conditions that favor the emergence and dissemination of multidrug-resistant GNB within the hospital and identifying extra-institutional “feeder reservoirs” of resistant strains such as long-term care facilities, where colonization is common despite limited numbers of serious infections. In settings where ESBL resistance is endemic, the cost-effectiveness of expanded infection control efforts and antimicrobial stewardship is still unknown. Once a patient has been colonized, selective oral or digestive decontamination may be considered, but evidence supporting its effectiveness is limited in patients who are already colonized or in centers with high rates of resistance. Moreover, temporary success at decolonization may be associated with a higher risk of relapse with strains that are resistant to the decolonizing antibiotics.

Considerations About Antimicrobial Stewardship in Settings with Epidemic Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing or Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae / Viale, Pierluigi; Giannella, Maddalena; Bartoletti, Michele; Tedeschi, Sara; Lewis, Russell. - In: INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND THERAPY. - ISSN 2193-6382. - ELETTRONICO. - 4:Suppl 1(2015), pp. 65-83. [10.1007/s40121-015-0081-y]

Considerations About Antimicrobial Stewardship in Settings with Epidemic Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing or Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae

VIALE, PIERLUIGI;GIANNELLA, MADDALENA;BARTOLETTI, MICHELE;TEDESCHI, SARA;LEWIS, RUSSEL EDWARD
2015

Abstract

Infections caused by gram-negative bacteria (GNB) resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics are increasing in many hospitals. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in particular are now endemic in many parts of the world and represent a serious public health threat. In this era, antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential as targeted and responsible use of antibiotics improves patient outcomes and hopefully limits the selective pressure that drives the further emergence of resistance. However, some stewardship strategies aimed at promoting carbapenem-sparing regimens remain controversial and are difficult to implement when resistance rates to non-carbapenem antibiotics are increasing. Coordinated efforts between stewardship programs and infection control are essential for reversing conditions that favor the emergence and dissemination of multidrug-resistant GNB within the hospital and identifying extra-institutional “feeder reservoirs” of resistant strains such as long-term care facilities, where colonization is common despite limited numbers of serious infections. In settings where ESBL resistance is endemic, the cost-effectiveness of expanded infection control efforts and antimicrobial stewardship is still unknown. Once a patient has been colonized, selective oral or digestive decontamination may be considered, but evidence supporting its effectiveness is limited in patients who are already colonized or in centers with high rates of resistance. Moreover, temporary success at decolonization may be associated with a higher risk of relapse with strains that are resistant to the decolonizing antibiotics.
2015
Considerations About Antimicrobial Stewardship in Settings with Epidemic Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing or Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae / Viale, Pierluigi; Giannella, Maddalena; Bartoletti, Michele; Tedeschi, Sara; Lewis, Russell. - In: INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND THERAPY. - ISSN 2193-6382. - ELETTRONICO. - 4:Suppl 1(2015), pp. 65-83. [10.1007/s40121-015-0081-y]
Viale, Pierluigi; Giannella, Maddalena; Bartoletti, Michele; Tedeschi, Sara; Lewis, Russell
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/553045
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