Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate 11C-choline PET/CT as a diagnostic tool for restaging prostate cancer (PCa), in a large, homogeneous and clinically relevant population of patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) of PCa after primary therapy. The secondary aim was to assess the best timing for performing 11C-choline PET/CT during BCR. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 9,632 11C-choline PET/CT scans performed in our institution for restaging PCa from January 2007 to June 2015. The inclusion criteria were: (1) proven PCa radically treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) or with primary external beam radiotherapy (EBRT); (2) PSA serum values available; (3) proven BCR (PSA >0.2 ng/mL after RP or PSA >2 ng/mL above the nadir after primary EBRT with rising PSA levels). Finally, 3,203 patients with recurrent PCa matching all the inclusion criteria were retrospectively enrolled and 4,426 scans were analysed. RESULTS: Overall, 52.8 % of the 11C-choline PET/CT scans (2,337/4,426) and 54.8 % of the patients (1,755/3,203) were positive. In 29.4 % of the scans, at least one distant finding was observed. The mean and median PSA values were, respectively, 4.9 and 2.1 ng/mL at the time of the scan (range 0.2 - 50 ng/mL). In our series, 995 scans were performed in patients with PSA levels between 1 and 2 ng/mL. In this subpopulation the positivity rate in the 995 scans was 44.7 %, with an incidence of distant findings of 19.2 % and an incidence of oligometastatic disease (one to three lesions) of 37.7 %. The absolute PSA value at the time of the scan and ongoing androgen deprivation therapy were associated with an increased probability of a positive 11C-choline PET/CT scan (p < 0.0001). In the ROC analysis, a PSA value of 1.16 ng/mL was the optimal cut-off value. In patients with a PSA value <1.16 ng/mL, 26.8 % of 1,426 11C-choline PET/CT scans were positive, with oligometastatic disease in 84.7 % of positive scans. CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of patients, the feasibility of 11C-choline PET/CT for detecting the sites of metastatic disease in PCa patients with BCR was confirmed. The PSA level was the main predictor of a positive scan with 1.16 ng/mL as the optimal cut-off value. In the majority of positive scans oligometastatic disease, potentially treatable with salvage therapies, was observed.

11C-Choline PET/CT for restaging prostate cancer. Results from 4,426 scans in a single-centre patient series

GRAZIANI, TIZIANO;CECI, FRANCESCO;CASTELLUCCI, PAOLO;POLVERARI, GIULIA;LIMA, GIACOMO MARIA;LODI, FILIPPO;MORGANTI, ALESSIO GIUSEPPE;ARDIZZONI, ANDREA;SCHIAVINA, RICCARDO;FANTI, STEFANO
2016

Abstract

Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate 11C-choline PET/CT as a diagnostic tool for restaging prostate cancer (PCa), in a large, homogeneous and clinically relevant population of patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) of PCa after primary therapy. The secondary aim was to assess the best timing for performing 11C-choline PET/CT during BCR. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 9,632 11C-choline PET/CT scans performed in our institution for restaging PCa from January 2007 to June 2015. The inclusion criteria were: (1) proven PCa radically treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) or with primary external beam radiotherapy (EBRT); (2) PSA serum values available; (3) proven BCR (PSA >0.2 ng/mL after RP or PSA >2 ng/mL above the nadir after primary EBRT with rising PSA levels). Finally, 3,203 patients with recurrent PCa matching all the inclusion criteria were retrospectively enrolled and 4,426 scans were analysed. RESULTS: Overall, 52.8 % of the 11C-choline PET/CT scans (2,337/4,426) and 54.8 % of the patients (1,755/3,203) were positive. In 29.4 % of the scans, at least one distant finding was observed. The mean and median PSA values were, respectively, 4.9 and 2.1 ng/mL at the time of the scan (range 0.2 - 50 ng/mL). In our series, 995 scans were performed in patients with PSA levels between 1 and 2 ng/mL. In this subpopulation the positivity rate in the 995 scans was 44.7 %, with an incidence of distant findings of 19.2 % and an incidence of oligometastatic disease (one to three lesions) of 37.7 %. The absolute PSA value at the time of the scan and ongoing androgen deprivation therapy were associated with an increased probability of a positive 11C-choline PET/CT scan (p < 0.0001). In the ROC analysis, a PSA value of 1.16 ng/mL was the optimal cut-off value. In patients with a PSA value <1.16 ng/mL, 26.8 % of 1,426 11C-choline PET/CT scans were positive, with oligometastatic disease in 84.7 % of positive scans. CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of patients, the feasibility of 11C-choline PET/CT for detecting the sites of metastatic disease in PCa patients with BCR was confirmed. The PSA level was the main predictor of a positive scan with 1.16 ng/mL as the optimal cut-off value. In the majority of positive scans oligometastatic disease, potentially treatable with salvage therapies, was observed.
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING
Graziani, Tiziano; Ceci, Francesco; Castellucci, Paolo; Polverari, Giulia; Lima, Giacomo Maria; Lodi, Filippo; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Schiavina, Riccardo; Fanti, Stefano
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/544700
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