BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ultrasound surveillance does not detect early stage hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in some patients with cirrhosis, although the reasons for this have not been well studied. We assessed the rate at which ultrasound fails to detect early stage HCCs and factors that affect its performance. METHODS: We collected information on 1170 consecutive patients included in the Italian Liver Cancer (ITA.LI.CA) database who had Child-Pugh A or B cirrhosis and were diagnosed with HCC during semiannual or annual ultrasound surveillance, from January 1987 through December 2008. Etiologies included hepatitis C virus infection (59.3%), alcohol abuse (11.3%), hepatitis B virus infection (9%), a combination of factors (15.6%), and other factors (4.7%). Surveillance was considered to be a failure when patients were diagnosed with HCC at a stage beyond the Milan criteria (1 nodule ≤5 cm or ≤3 nodules each ≤3 cm). RESULTS: HCC was found beyond Milan criteria in 34.3% of surveilled patients (32.2% during semi-annual surveillance and 41.3% during annual surveillance; P < .01). Nearly half of surveillance failures were associated with at least one indicator of aggressive HCC (levels of AFP >1000 ng/mL, infiltrating tumors, or vascular invasion and metastases). Semiannual surveillance, female sex, Child-Pugh class A, and α-fetoprotein levels of 200 ng/mL or less were associated independently with successful ultrasound screening for HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our analysis of surveillance for HCC in patients with cirrhosis, the efficacy of ultrasound-based screening is acceptable. Ultrasound was least effective in identifying aggressive HCC, and at surveillance intervals of more than 6 months.

Del Poggio P, Olmi S, Ciccarese F, Di Marco M, Rapaccini GL, Benvegnù L, et al. (2014). Factors that affect efficacy of ultrasound surveillance for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis. CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, 12, 1927-1933 [10.1016/j.cgh.2014.02.025].

Factors that affect efficacy of ultrasound surveillance for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis.

ZOLI, MARCO;TREVISANI, FRANCO;BERNARDI, MAURO;BISELLI, MAURIZIO;CARACENI, PAOLO;CUCCHETTI, ALESSANDRO;DOMENICALI, MARCO;GRAMENZI, ANNAGIULIA;LENZI, BARBARA;RAVAIOLI, MATTEO
2014

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ultrasound surveillance does not detect early stage hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in some patients with cirrhosis, although the reasons for this have not been well studied. We assessed the rate at which ultrasound fails to detect early stage HCCs and factors that affect its performance. METHODS: We collected information on 1170 consecutive patients included in the Italian Liver Cancer (ITA.LI.CA) database who had Child-Pugh A or B cirrhosis and were diagnosed with HCC during semiannual or annual ultrasound surveillance, from January 1987 through December 2008. Etiologies included hepatitis C virus infection (59.3%), alcohol abuse (11.3%), hepatitis B virus infection (9%), a combination of factors (15.6%), and other factors (4.7%). Surveillance was considered to be a failure when patients were diagnosed with HCC at a stage beyond the Milan criteria (1 nodule ≤5 cm or ≤3 nodules each ≤3 cm). RESULTS: HCC was found beyond Milan criteria in 34.3% of surveilled patients (32.2% during semi-annual surveillance and 41.3% during annual surveillance; P < .01). Nearly half of surveillance failures were associated with at least one indicator of aggressive HCC (levels of AFP >1000 ng/mL, infiltrating tumors, or vascular invasion and metastases). Semiannual surveillance, female sex, Child-Pugh class A, and α-fetoprotein levels of 200 ng/mL or less were associated independently with successful ultrasound screening for HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our analysis of surveillance for HCC in patients with cirrhosis, the efficacy of ultrasound-based screening is acceptable. Ultrasound was least effective in identifying aggressive HCC, and at surveillance intervals of more than 6 months.
2014
Del Poggio P, Olmi S, Ciccarese F, Di Marco M, Rapaccini GL, Benvegnù L, et al. (2014). Factors that affect efficacy of ultrasound surveillance for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis. CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, 12, 1927-1933 [10.1016/j.cgh.2014.02.025].
Del Poggio P; Olmi S; Ciccarese F; Di Marco M; Rapaccini GL; Benvegnù L; Borzio F; Farinati F; Zoli M; Giannini EG; Caturelli E; Chiaramonte M; Trevisani F; Italian Liver Cancer (ITA.LI.CA) Group; Bernardi M; Biselli M; Caraceni P; Cucchetti A; Domenicali M; Gramenzi A; Garuti F; Lenzi B; Ravaioli M
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/518736
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