Although antifungal prophylaxis is frequently administered to patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) during remission-induction chemotherapy (RIC), its impact on reducing invasive fungal infections (IFIs) outside clinical trials is rarely reported. We performed a retrospective observational study to identify risk factors for development of IFIs (definite or probable, using revised European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] criteria) and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 152 AML patients receiving RIC (2009 to 2011). We also compared rates of IFI and mortality in patients who received echinocandin versus anti-Aspergillus azole (voriconazole or posaconazole) prophylaxis during the first 120 days of RIC. In multivariate analysis, clofarabine-based RIC (hazard ratio [HR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 8.3; P = 0.004) and echinocandin prophylaxis (HR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.8 to 11.9; P = 0.002) were independently associated with higher rates of IFI rates during RIC. Subsequent analysis failed to identify any malignancy- or chemotherapy-related covariates linked to echinocandin prophylaxis that accounted for the higher rates of breakthrough IFI. Although the possibility of other confounding variables cannot be excluded, our findings suggest that echinocandin-based prophylaxis during RIC for AML may be associated with a higher risk of breakthrough IFI.

Effectiveness of Primary Anti-Aspergillus Prophylaxis during Remission Induction Chemotherapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

LEWIS, RUSSEL EDWARD;
2014

Abstract

Although antifungal prophylaxis is frequently administered to patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) during remission-induction chemotherapy (RIC), its impact on reducing invasive fungal infections (IFIs) outside clinical trials is rarely reported. We performed a retrospective observational study to identify risk factors for development of IFIs (definite or probable, using revised European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] criteria) and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 152 AML patients receiving RIC (2009 to 2011). We also compared rates of IFI and mortality in patients who received echinocandin versus anti-Aspergillus azole (voriconazole or posaconazole) prophylaxis during the first 120 days of RIC. In multivariate analysis, clofarabine-based RIC (hazard ratio [HR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 8.3; P = 0.004) and echinocandin prophylaxis (HR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.8 to 11.9; P = 0.002) were independently associated with higher rates of IFI rates during RIC. Subsequent analysis failed to identify any malignancy- or chemotherapy-related covariates linked to echinocandin prophylaxis that accounted for the higher rates of breakthrough IFI. Although the possibility of other confounding variables cannot be excluded, our findings suggest that echinocandin-based prophylaxis during RIC for AML may be associated with a higher risk of breakthrough IFI.
2014
M. Z. R.;Y. Jiang;V. E. Mulanovich;R. E. Lewis;D. P. Kontoyiannis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/411771
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