In Morocco, Clonopsis stick insects showed tangled reproductive interactions actually resulting into a network of phylogenetic relationships known as ‘reticulate evolution’. Peculiar to parthenogenetic C. gallica and C. soumiae (54 and 72 chromosomes, respectively) – closely related to the bisexual C. felicitatis (2n = 36) – is the finding of numerically polyploid karyotypes with a diploid structure. Androgenesis appeared to be the most parsimoni- ous explanation accounting for both the low mitochondrial differentiation and the quick onset of those polyploids with structurally diploid karyotypes, paired with neat nuclear differentiations. According to a proposed model, hybrid triploid females would segregate balanced haploid and diploid 2nd oo- cytes immediately producing all kinds of parthenogens and androgens. Owing to these peculiar reproductive issues, we felt useful searching for stron- ger evidence by deeply analysing the mitochondrial genome. This new analysis showed a neat separation of sexual Tetouan haplotypes from the parthenogenetic and androgenetic ones, which are grouped in two slightly overlapping groups by network analysis: Moroccan parthenogens and andro- gens vs European C. gallica. It could be also envisaged that C. gallica has multiple origins, being a complex of parthenogenetic strains originated through independent hybridizations. The straightforward mechanism originating both triploid and tetraploid parthenogens well fits with both their widely ascertained low mitochondrial differentiation and the geographical closeness of the most similar samples, independently from their specific karyotype. Combining the outcomes of the hybridization events and androgenesis, which completely substitutes hybrid genomes with those of a related paternal species, would conceivably realize the observed picture of species structure and distribution. Owing to the reinforced data set, it now appears much more sensible to support androgenesis as a quick pathway to originate polyploids with numerically and genetically sharply differing chromosome sets, while maintaining, at the same time, high mitochondrial similarity.

Milani L., Scali V., Passamonti M. (2015). Speciation through androgenesis in the stick insect genus Clonopsis (Insecta Phasmatodea). JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGICAL SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTIONARY RESEARCH, 53(2), 116-123 [10.1111/jzs.12087].

Speciation through androgenesis in the stick insect genus Clonopsis (Insecta Phasmatodea).

MILANI, LILIANA;SCALI, VALERIO;PASSAMONTI, MARCO
2015

Abstract

In Morocco, Clonopsis stick insects showed tangled reproductive interactions actually resulting into a network of phylogenetic relationships known as ‘reticulate evolution’. Peculiar to parthenogenetic C. gallica and C. soumiae (54 and 72 chromosomes, respectively) – closely related to the bisexual C. felicitatis (2n = 36) – is the finding of numerically polyploid karyotypes with a diploid structure. Androgenesis appeared to be the most parsimoni- ous explanation accounting for both the low mitochondrial differentiation and the quick onset of those polyploids with structurally diploid karyotypes, paired with neat nuclear differentiations. According to a proposed model, hybrid triploid females would segregate balanced haploid and diploid 2nd oo- cytes immediately producing all kinds of parthenogens and androgens. Owing to these peculiar reproductive issues, we felt useful searching for stron- ger evidence by deeply analysing the mitochondrial genome. This new analysis showed a neat separation of sexual Tetouan haplotypes from the parthenogenetic and androgenetic ones, which are grouped in two slightly overlapping groups by network analysis: Moroccan parthenogens and andro- gens vs European C. gallica. It could be also envisaged that C. gallica has multiple origins, being a complex of parthenogenetic strains originated through independent hybridizations. The straightforward mechanism originating both triploid and tetraploid parthenogens well fits with both their widely ascertained low mitochondrial differentiation and the geographical closeness of the most similar samples, independently from their specific karyotype. Combining the outcomes of the hybridization events and androgenesis, which completely substitutes hybrid genomes with those of a related paternal species, would conceivably realize the observed picture of species structure and distribution. Owing to the reinforced data set, it now appears much more sensible to support androgenesis as a quick pathway to originate polyploids with numerically and genetically sharply differing chromosome sets, while maintaining, at the same time, high mitochondrial similarity.
2015
Milani L., Scali V., Passamonti M. (2015). Speciation through androgenesis in the stick insect genus Clonopsis (Insecta Phasmatodea). JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGICAL SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTIONARY RESEARCH, 53(2), 116-123 [10.1111/jzs.12087].
Milani L.; Scali V.; Passamonti M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/335318
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