Human gut microbiota directly influences health and provides an extra means of adaptive potential to different lifestyles. To explore variation in gut microbiota and to understand how these bacteria may have co-evolved with humans, here we investigate the phylogenetic diversity and metabolite production of the gut microbiota from a community of human hunter-gatherers, the Hadza of Tanzania. We show that the Hadza have higher levels of microbial richness and biodiversity than Italian urban controls. Further comparisons with two rural farming African groups illustrate other features unique to Hadza that can be linked to a foraging lifestyle. These include absence of Bifidobacterium and differences in microbial composition between the sexes that probably reflect sexual division of labour. Furthermore, enrichment in Prevotella, Treponema and unclassified Bacteroidetes, as well as a peculiar arrangement of Clostridiales taxa, may enhance the Hadza’s ability to digest and extract valuable nutrition from fibrous plant foods.

Gut microbiome of the Hadza hunter-gatherers

CANDELA, MARCO;RAMPELLI, SIMONE;CENTANNI, MANUELA;TURRONI, SILVIA;BIAGI, ELENA;FIORI, JESSICA;GOTTI, ROBERTO;LUISELLI, DONATA;BRIGIDI, PATRIZIA;
2014

Abstract

Human gut microbiota directly influences health and provides an extra means of adaptive potential to different lifestyles. To explore variation in gut microbiota and to understand how these bacteria may have co-evolved with humans, here we investigate the phylogenetic diversity and metabolite production of the gut microbiota from a community of human hunter-gatherers, the Hadza of Tanzania. We show that the Hadza have higher levels of microbial richness and biodiversity than Italian urban controls. Further comparisons with two rural farming African groups illustrate other features unique to Hadza that can be linked to a foraging lifestyle. These include absence of Bifidobacterium and differences in microbial composition between the sexes that probably reflect sexual division of labour. Furthermore, enrichment in Prevotella, Treponema and unclassified Bacteroidetes, as well as a peculiar arrangement of Clostridiales taxa, may enhance the Hadza’s ability to digest and extract valuable nutrition from fibrous plant foods.
NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
Stephanie L. Schnorr;Marco Candela;Simone Rampelli;Manuela Centanni;Clarissa Consolandi;Giulia Basaglia;Silvia Turroni;Elena Biagi;Clelia Peano;Marco Severgnini;Jessica Fiori;Roberto Gotti;Gianluca De Bellis;Donata Luiselli;Patrizia Brigidi;Audax Mabulla;Frank Marlowe;Amanda G. Henry;Alyssa N. Crittenden
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/301533
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