OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the accuracy of sonographic identification of the site of umbilical cord insertion (CI) at 18-20 weeks of gestation, to compare the sensitivities for detection of a velamentous cord insertion (VCI) secondary to a CI into the anterior, posterior or fundal wall, and to compare the intrapartum complications secondary to VCI into the upper, middle or lower third of the uterus. METHODS: As part of the routine ultrasound scan at 18-20 weeks' gestation we evaluated abnormal CI (VCI and marginal CI) and the location of the CI in the uterus in 3446 pregnancies. In cases of abnormal CI, the location of the CI was further classified as being in the upper, middle or lower third of the uterus. After delivery, the placenta and the umbilical cord were examined and intrapartum complications were compared with the location of the CI. RESULTS: The values for antenatal detection of VCI were: sensitivity, 25 of 40 (62.5%); positive predictive value, 25 of 25 (100%); and negative predictive value, 3406 of 3421 (99.6%). The sensitivity for cases in which the CI was located on the anterior wall was 12 of 13 (92.3%); when it was located on the posterior wall, the sensitivity was 11 of 22 (50.0%); and when it was fundal the sensitivity was 2 of 5 (40.0%). Variable decelerations were frequently observed with a VCI. In lower VCI cases, non-reassuring fetal heart rate patterns and emergency Cesarean sections occurred with a higher frequency than in cases with upper or middle VCI (P < 0.01). After delivery, the length of the aberrant vessels in cases of VCI by pathologic examination was 3.9 +/- 3.3 cm in the upper third, 4.7 +/- 4.6 cm in the middle third, and 10.6 +/- 6.8 cm in the lower third; thus, the aberrant vessel length was significantly greater when the CI was in the lower third of the uterus (P = 0.024). CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that VCI with a lower CI site and with longer aberrant vessels is associated with various intrapartum complications. This finding has the potential for improving perinatal outcome.

Velamentous cord insertion into the lower third of the uterus is associated with intrapartum fetal heart rate abnormalities

FARINA, ANTONIO;
2006

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the accuracy of sonographic identification of the site of umbilical cord insertion (CI) at 18-20 weeks of gestation, to compare the sensitivities for detection of a velamentous cord insertion (VCI) secondary to a CI into the anterior, posterior or fundal wall, and to compare the intrapartum complications secondary to VCI into the upper, middle or lower third of the uterus. METHODS: As part of the routine ultrasound scan at 18-20 weeks' gestation we evaluated abnormal CI (VCI and marginal CI) and the location of the CI in the uterus in 3446 pregnancies. In cases of abnormal CI, the location of the CI was further classified as being in the upper, middle or lower third of the uterus. After delivery, the placenta and the umbilical cord were examined and intrapartum complications were compared with the location of the CI. RESULTS: The values for antenatal detection of VCI were: sensitivity, 25 of 40 (62.5%); positive predictive value, 25 of 25 (100%); and negative predictive value, 3406 of 3421 (99.6%). The sensitivity for cases in which the CI was located on the anterior wall was 12 of 13 (92.3%); when it was located on the posterior wall, the sensitivity was 11 of 22 (50.0%); and when it was fundal the sensitivity was 2 of 5 (40.0%). Variable decelerations were frequently observed with a VCI. In lower VCI cases, non-reassuring fetal heart rate patterns and emergency Cesarean sections occurred with a higher frequency than in cases with upper or middle VCI (P < 0.01). After delivery, the length of the aberrant vessels in cases of VCI by pathologic examination was 3.9 +/- 3.3 cm in the upper third, 4.7 +/- 4.6 cm in the middle third, and 10.6 +/- 6.8 cm in the lower third; thus, the aberrant vessel length was significantly greater when the CI was in the lower third of the uterus (P = 0.024). CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that VCI with a lower CI site and with longer aberrant vessels is associated with various intrapartum complications. This finding has the potential for improving perinatal outcome.
Hasegawa J; Matsuoka R; Ichizuka K; Sekizawa A; Farina A; Okai T.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/27422
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