Mitochondrial ORFans (Open Reading Frames having no detectable homology and with unknown function) were discovered in bivalve molluscs with Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI) of mitochondria. In these animals two mitochondrial lineages are present, one transmitted through eggs (F-type), the other through sperm (M-type), each showing a specific ORFan. In the present study, we used in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to provide evidence for the expression of Ruditapes philippinarum male-specific ORFan (orf21): both the transcript and the protein (RPHM21) were localized in spermatogenetic cells and mature spermatozoa; the protein was localized in sperm mitochondria and nuclei, and in early embryos. Also, in silico analyses of orf21 flanking region and RPHM21 structure supported its derivation from viral sequence endogenization. We propose that RPHM21 prevents the recognition of M-type mitochondria by the degradation machinery, allowing their survival in the zygote. The process might involve a mechanism similar to that of Modulators of Immune Recognition, viral proteins involved in the immune recognition pathway, to which RPHM21 showed structural similarities. A viral origin of RPHM21 may also support a developmental role, since some integrated viral elements are involved in development and sperm differentiation of their host. Mitochondrial ORFans could be responsible for or participate in the DUI mechanism and their viral origin could explain the acquired capability of M-type mitochondria to avoid degradation and invade the germ line, that is what viruses do best: to elude host immune system and proliferate.

Milani L., Ghiselli F., Maurizii M.G., Nuzhdin S., Passamonti M. (2014). Paternally transmitted mitochondria express a new gene of potential viral origin. GENOME BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, 6(2), 391-405 [10.1093/gbe/evu021].

Paternally transmitted mitochondria express a new gene of potential viral origin.

MILANI, LILIANA;GHISELLI, FABRIZIO;MAURIZII, MARIA GABRIELLA;PASSAMONTI, MARCO
2014

Abstract

Mitochondrial ORFans (Open Reading Frames having no detectable homology and with unknown function) were discovered in bivalve molluscs with Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI) of mitochondria. In these animals two mitochondrial lineages are present, one transmitted through eggs (F-type), the other through sperm (M-type), each showing a specific ORFan. In the present study, we used in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to provide evidence for the expression of Ruditapes philippinarum male-specific ORFan (orf21): both the transcript and the protein (RPHM21) were localized in spermatogenetic cells and mature spermatozoa; the protein was localized in sperm mitochondria and nuclei, and in early embryos. Also, in silico analyses of orf21 flanking region and RPHM21 structure supported its derivation from viral sequence endogenization. We propose that RPHM21 prevents the recognition of M-type mitochondria by the degradation machinery, allowing their survival in the zygote. The process might involve a mechanism similar to that of Modulators of Immune Recognition, viral proteins involved in the immune recognition pathway, to which RPHM21 showed structural similarities. A viral origin of RPHM21 may also support a developmental role, since some integrated viral elements are involved in development and sperm differentiation of their host. Mitochondrial ORFans could be responsible for or participate in the DUI mechanism and their viral origin could explain the acquired capability of M-type mitochondria to avoid degradation and invade the germ line, that is what viruses do best: to elude host immune system and proliferate.
2014
Milani L., Ghiselli F., Maurizii M.G., Nuzhdin S., Passamonti M. (2014). Paternally transmitted mitochondria express a new gene of potential viral origin. GENOME BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, 6(2), 391-405 [10.1093/gbe/evu021].
Milani L.; Ghiselli F.; Maurizii M.G.; Nuzhdin S.; Passamonti M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/224086
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