Aging is the singlemost important risk factor forAD(Alzheimer’s disease).However, the molecular events that connect normal aging to AD are mostly unknown. The abnormal accumulation of A£] (amyloid £]-peptide) in the form of senile plaques is one of the main characteristics of AD. In the present study, we show that two members of the neurotrophin receptor superfamily, TrkA (tyrosine kinase receptor A) and p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor), differentially regulate the processing of APP (amyloid precursor protein): TrkA reduces,whereas p75NTR activates, £]-cleavage ofAPP. The p75NTR-dependent effect requires NGF (nerve growth factor) binding and activation of the second messenger ceramide. We also show that normal aging activates A£] generation in the brain by ‘switching’ from the TrkA to the p75NTR receptor system. Such an effect is abolished in p75NTR ‘knockout’ animals, and can be blocked by both caloric restriction and inhibitors of nSMase (neutral sphingomyelinase). In contrast with caloric restriction, which prevents the age-associated up-regulation of p75NTR expression, nSMase inhibitors block the activation of ceramide. When taken together, these results indicate that the p75NTR–ceramide signalling pathway activates the rate of A£] generation in an age-dependent fashion, and provide a new target for both the understanding and the prevention of late-onset AD. aging, Alzheimer’s disease, amyloid precursor protein, ceramide, p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor), neurotrophin.

A TrkA to p75NTR molecular switch activates amyloid beta-peptide generation during aging

DELLA VALLE, GIULIANO;
2005

Abstract

Aging is the singlemost important risk factor forAD(Alzheimer’s disease).However, the molecular events that connect normal aging to AD are mostly unknown. The abnormal accumulation of A£] (amyloid £]-peptide) in the form of senile plaques is one of the main characteristics of AD. In the present study, we show that two members of the neurotrophin receptor superfamily, TrkA (tyrosine kinase receptor A) and p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor), differentially regulate the processing of APP (amyloid precursor protein): TrkA reduces,whereas p75NTR activates, £]-cleavage ofAPP. The p75NTR-dependent effect requires NGF (nerve growth factor) binding and activation of the second messenger ceramide. We also show that normal aging activates A£] generation in the brain by ‘switching’ from the TrkA to the p75NTR receptor system. Such an effect is abolished in p75NTR ‘knockout’ animals, and can be blocked by both caloric restriction and inhibitors of nSMase (neutral sphingomyelinase). In contrast with caloric restriction, which prevents the age-associated up-regulation of p75NTR expression, nSMase inhibitors block the activation of ceramide. When taken together, these results indicate that the p75NTR–ceramide signalling pathway activates the rate of A£] generation in an age-dependent fashion, and provide a new target for both the understanding and the prevention of late-onset AD. aging, Alzheimer’s disease, amyloid precursor protein, ceramide, p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor), neurotrophin.
Costantini C.; Weindruch R.; Della Valle G.; Puglielli L.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/14769
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