Considering studies and literature on how color standards could be applied to B.I.M. boosting its interoperability attitude, this contribution examines possible implementation of color documents as an additional data transfer parameter, mostly used by researchers but not widely by practitioners in building projects (McGraw-Hill Construction, 2010). B.I.M. is quickly becoming the AEC industry main paradigm, embedding benefits in terms of costs, quality and resources. Since it is not a software, but a pipelined process among different actors involved in the building process instead (Eastman et al., 2008), digital tools used all over the workflow have to be communicative as much as possible, in order to facilitate “change-ready design” and improve coordination as well (Lawrence, 2010). Generally B.I.M. streamlines design models, preparing them for Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) frameworks, which are intended to reduce waste and improving relations among owners, general contractors and architects (Teicholz, 2004). In spite of digital models complexity and emerging code restrictions, better accuracy of building documents can be reached through the use of color. In the U.S.A. mistakes, delay and reworks are estimated around 30% of project costs (The Economist, 2006) while in Europe they represent 10.8% of them (USP Marketing Consultancy in Holland, 2007); this is due to bad exchange of information, too little attention for building phase during design, too many changes while assembling and so forth, delivered through black and white documents sometimes redundant and disconnected. When considering the color impact on B.I.M., there are mainly two relevant aspects: a digital model can be better segmented and layered for actors through colors, beginning from the very concept phase then, extraction of color documents from models allows much more information on a single drawing, with easier interference identification embedding renderings or photos as well; although a color print costs nearly three times a monochrome one, less printings are necessary to transmit same contents, leading to a greener attitude with reduced budgets. In fact color increases understanding and retention of printed material by an average of 65% (USA Today) while highlighting key information can reduce search time by as much as 80% (White, 1997). A study by InfoTrends/CAP Ventures proved how users effectively understand data better when communicated in color, since they can be printed directly from software’s user interfaces, where reworks and updates are clearly visualized: CAD standards define colors for on-screen use, not on-paper, so the study revealed that color views can reduce failure cost on building site by 3.9%. Applying color construction documents to projects leads to a near term opportunity to reduce misunderstanding and gaining time on scheduled milestones, granting a significant return of investment, as documented by several investigations presented.

Visual architecture and interactive design for AEC industry: state-of-the-art about the impact of color on B.I.M. workflow

GARAGNANI, SIMONE;MINGUCCI, ROBERTO
2012

Abstract

Considering studies and literature on how color standards could be applied to B.I.M. boosting its interoperability attitude, this contribution examines possible implementation of color documents as an additional data transfer parameter, mostly used by researchers but not widely by practitioners in building projects (McGraw-Hill Construction, 2010). B.I.M. is quickly becoming the AEC industry main paradigm, embedding benefits in terms of costs, quality and resources. Since it is not a software, but a pipelined process among different actors involved in the building process instead (Eastman et al., 2008), digital tools used all over the workflow have to be communicative as much as possible, in order to facilitate “change-ready design” and improve coordination as well (Lawrence, 2010). Generally B.I.M. streamlines design models, preparing them for Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) frameworks, which are intended to reduce waste and improving relations among owners, general contractors and architects (Teicholz, 2004). In spite of digital models complexity and emerging code restrictions, better accuracy of building documents can be reached through the use of color. In the U.S.A. mistakes, delay and reworks are estimated around 30% of project costs (The Economist, 2006) while in Europe they represent 10.8% of them (USP Marketing Consultancy in Holland, 2007); this is due to bad exchange of information, too little attention for building phase during design, too many changes while assembling and so forth, delivered through black and white documents sometimes redundant and disconnected. When considering the color impact on B.I.M., there are mainly two relevant aspects: a digital model can be better segmented and layered for actors through colors, beginning from the very concept phase then, extraction of color documents from models allows much more information on a single drawing, with easier interference identification embedding renderings or photos as well; although a color print costs nearly three times a monochrome one, less printings are necessary to transmit same contents, leading to a greener attitude with reduced budgets. In fact color increases understanding and retention of printed material by an average of 65% (USA Today) while highlighting key information can reduce search time by as much as 80% (White, 1997). A study by InfoTrends/CAP Ventures proved how users effectively understand data better when communicated in color, since they can be printed directly from software’s user interfaces, where reworks and updates are clearly visualized: CAD standards define colors for on-screen use, not on-paper, so the study revealed that color views can reduce failure cost on building site by 3.9%. Applying color construction documents to projects leads to a near term opportunity to reduce misunderstanding and gaining time on scheduled milestones, granting a significant return of investment, as documented by several investigations presented.
Color and Colorimetry. Multidisciplinary Contributions. Proceedings of the Eighth Color Conference.
250
256
S. Garagnani; R. Mingucci
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/130086
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