Cerebral vessels are extensively innervated by sympathetic nerves arising from superior cervical ganglia, and these nerves might play a protective role during the large arterial pressure surges of active sleep (AS). We studied lambs (n=10) undergoing spontaneous sleep-wake cycles before and after bilateral removal of the superior cervical ganglia (SCGx, n=5) or sham ganglionectomy (n=5). Lambs were instrumented to record cerebral blood flow (CBF, flow probe on the superior sagittal sinus), carotid arterial pressure (P(ca)), intra-cranial pressure (P(ic)), cerebral perfusion pressure (Pcp=Pca-Pic) and cerebral vascular resistance (CVR). Prior to SCGx, CBF (mL min-1) was significantly higher in AS than in Quiet Sleep (QS) and Quiet Wakefulness (QW) (17+/-2, 13+/-3, and 14+/-3 respectively, mean+/-SD, P<0.05). Following SCGx, baseline CBF increased by 34, 31, and 29% respectively (P<0.05). CVR also decreased in all states by approximately 25% (P<0.05). During phasic AS, surges of Pca were associated with transient increases in Pcp, Pic and CBF. Following SCGx, peak CBF and Pic during surges became higher and more prolonged (P<0.05). Our study is the first to reveal that tonic sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) constricts the cerebral circulation and restrains baseline CBF in sleep. SNA is further incremented during arterial pressure surges of AS, limiting rises in CBF and Pic, possibly by opposing vascular distension as well as by constricting resistance vessels. Thus, SNA may protect cerebral microvessels from excessive distension during AS, when large arterial blood pressure surges are common.

Sympathetic nervous control of the cerebral circulation in sleep.

ZOCCOLI, GIOVANNA;FRANZINI, CARLO;
2005

Abstract

Cerebral vessels are extensively innervated by sympathetic nerves arising from superior cervical ganglia, and these nerves might play a protective role during the large arterial pressure surges of active sleep (AS). We studied lambs (n=10) undergoing spontaneous sleep-wake cycles before and after bilateral removal of the superior cervical ganglia (SCGx, n=5) or sham ganglionectomy (n=5). Lambs were instrumented to record cerebral blood flow (CBF, flow probe on the superior sagittal sinus), carotid arterial pressure (P(ca)), intra-cranial pressure (P(ic)), cerebral perfusion pressure (Pcp=Pca-Pic) and cerebral vascular resistance (CVR). Prior to SCGx, CBF (mL min-1) was significantly higher in AS than in Quiet Sleep (QS) and Quiet Wakefulness (QW) (17+/-2, 13+/-3, and 14+/-3 respectively, mean+/-SD, P<0.05). Following SCGx, baseline CBF increased by 34, 31, and 29% respectively (P<0.05). CVR also decreased in all states by approximately 25% (P<0.05). During phasic AS, surges of Pca were associated with transient increases in Pcp, Pic and CBF. Following SCGx, peak CBF and Pic during surges became higher and more prolonged (P<0.05). Our study is the first to reveal that tonic sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) constricts the cerebral circulation and restrains baseline CBF in sleep. SNA is further incremented during arterial pressure surges of AS, limiting rises in CBF and Pic, possibly by opposing vascular distension as well as by constricting resistance vessels. Thus, SNA may protect cerebral microvessels from excessive distension during AS, when large arterial blood pressure surges are common.
Loos N.; Grant D.A.; Wild J.; Paul S.; Barfield C.; Zoccoli G.; Franzini C.; Walker A.M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/12364
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