Background: Knowledge of the patterns of myocardial amyloid accumulation could improve the interpretation of electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of amyloidosis. We assessed the extent and pattern of myocardial amyloid infiltration in explanted or autopsied hearts of patients with cardiomyopathy related to acquired monoclonal immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) or hereditary transthyretin (TTR) related amyloidosis (ATTR). Methods: We analyzed nine explanted/autopsied hearts from patients with AL (n = 4) and ATTR (n = 5) cardiac amyloidosis. For each heart, a biventricular histological macrosection was obtained at mid-ventricular level and analyzed with both inspective and computer-assisted histologic and histomorphometric analysis aimed in particular at quantifying muscle cells, fibrosis and amyloid infiltration. Results: The extent of amyloid infiltration of the left ventricle (LV) ranged from 45 to 76% (median [interquartile range (IQR)] = 57% [51-64]) of the overall surface. Although LV trabecular and subendocardial were the most infiltrated layers (45-94%, median [IQR] = 73% [67-84] and from 44 to 71%, median [IQR] = 57% [49-59], respectively), intra- and inter-patient heterogeneity was high. Three main patterns of amyloid infiltration of the LV were identified: diffuse (five cases), mainly subendocardial (two cases), and mainly segmental (two cases). The extent of amyloid infiltration of the right ventricle ranged from 48 to 93% (median [IQR] = 61% [59-83]); contributions of parietal and trabecular layers ranged from 32 to 99% (median [IQR] = 63% [47-88]) and from 49 to 93% (median [IQR] = 74% [64-79]), respectively. Conclusions: In amyloidotic cardiomyopathy, amyloid deposition is highly heterogeneous. Different patterns of infiltration are identifiable, including diffuse, mainly segmental and mainly subendocardial. Awareness of this variability can help the interpretation of ECGs, echocardiograms and magnetic resonance imaging.

New pathological insights into cardiac amyloidosis: implications for non-invasive diagnosis.

LEONE, ORNELLA;LONGHI, SIMONE;QUARTA, CANDIDA CRISTINA;RAGAZZINI, TERESA;BADIALI DE GIORGI, LUCILLA;PASQUALE, FERDINANDO;POTENA, LUCIANO;MILANDRI, AGNESE;ARPESELLA, GIORGIO;RAPEZZI, CLAUDIO
2012

Abstract

Background: Knowledge of the patterns of myocardial amyloid accumulation could improve the interpretation of electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of amyloidosis. We assessed the extent and pattern of myocardial amyloid infiltration in explanted or autopsied hearts of patients with cardiomyopathy related to acquired monoclonal immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) or hereditary transthyretin (TTR) related amyloidosis (ATTR). Methods: We analyzed nine explanted/autopsied hearts from patients with AL (n = 4) and ATTR (n = 5) cardiac amyloidosis. For each heart, a biventricular histological macrosection was obtained at mid-ventricular level and analyzed with both inspective and computer-assisted histologic and histomorphometric analysis aimed in particular at quantifying muscle cells, fibrosis and amyloid infiltration. Results: The extent of amyloid infiltration of the left ventricle (LV) ranged from 45 to 76% (median [interquartile range (IQR)] = 57% [51-64]) of the overall surface. Although LV trabecular and subendocardial were the most infiltrated layers (45-94%, median [IQR] = 73% [67-84] and from 44 to 71%, median [IQR] = 57% [49-59], respectively), intra- and inter-patient heterogeneity was high. Three main patterns of amyloid infiltration of the LV were identified: diffuse (five cases), mainly subendocardial (two cases), and mainly segmental (two cases). The extent of amyloid infiltration of the right ventricle ranged from 48 to 93% (median [IQR] = 61% [59-83]); contributions of parietal and trabecular layers ranged from 32 to 99% (median [IQR] = 63% [47-88]) and from 49 to 93% (median [IQR] = 74% [64-79]), respectively. Conclusions: In amyloidotic cardiomyopathy, amyloid deposition is highly heterogeneous. Different patterns of infiltration are identifiable, including diffuse, mainly segmental and mainly subendocardial. Awareness of this variability can help the interpretation of ECGs, echocardiograms and magnetic resonance imaging.
Leone O; Longhi S; Quarta CC; Ragazzini T; De Giorgi LB; Pasquale F; Potena L; Lovato L; Milandri A; Arpesella G; Rapezzi C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/117432
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