We present 0.5-2 keV, 2-8 keV, 4-8 keV, and 0.5-8 keV (hereafter soft, hard, ultra-hard, and full bands, respectively) cumulative and differential number-count (log N-log S) measurements for the recently completed ≈4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey, the deepest X-ray survey to date. We implement a new Bayesian approach, which allows reliable calculation of number counts down to flux limits that are factors of ≈1.9-4.3 times fainter than the previously deepest number-count investigations. In the soft band (SB), the most sensitive bandpass in our analysis, the ≈4 Ms CDF-S reaches a maximum source density of ≈27,800 deg-2. By virtue of the exquisite X-ray and multiwavelength data available in the CDF-S, we are able to measure the number counts from a variety of source populations (active galactic nuclei (AGNs), normal galaxies, and Galactic stars) and subpopulations (as a function of redshift, AGN absorption, luminosity, and galaxy morphology) and test models that describe their evolution. We find that AGNs still dominate the X-ray number counts down to the faintest flux levels for all bands and reach a limiting SB source density of ≈14,900 deg-2, the highest reliable AGN source density measured at any wavelength. We find that the normal-galaxy counts rise rapidly near the flux limits and, at the limiting SB flux, reach source densities of ≈12,700 deg-2 and make up 46% ± 5% of the total number counts. The rapid rise of the galaxy counts toward faint fluxes, as well as significant normal-galaxy contributions to the overall number counts, indicates that normal galaxies will overtake AGNs just below the ≈4 Ms SB flux limit and will provide a numerically significant new X-ray source population in future surveys that reach below the ≈4 Ms sensitivity limit. We show that a future ≈10 Ms CDF-S would allow for a significant increase in X-ray-detected sources, with many of the new sources being cosmologically distant (z >~ 0.6) normal galaxies.

Lehmer B.D., Xue Y.Q., Brandt W.N., Alexander D.M., Bauer F.E., Brusa M., et al. (2012). The 4Ms Chandra Deep Field-South number counts apportioned by source class: pervasive Active Galactic Nuclei and the ascent of normal galaxies. THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 752, 46-68 [10.1088/0004-637X/752/1/46].

The 4Ms Chandra Deep Field-South number counts apportioned by source class: pervasive Active Galactic Nuclei and the ascent of normal galaxies

BRUSA, MARCELLA;VIGNALI, CRISTIAN
2012

Abstract

We present 0.5-2 keV, 2-8 keV, 4-8 keV, and 0.5-8 keV (hereafter soft, hard, ultra-hard, and full bands, respectively) cumulative and differential number-count (log N-log S) measurements for the recently completed ≈4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey, the deepest X-ray survey to date. We implement a new Bayesian approach, which allows reliable calculation of number counts down to flux limits that are factors of ≈1.9-4.3 times fainter than the previously deepest number-count investigations. In the soft band (SB), the most sensitive bandpass in our analysis, the ≈4 Ms CDF-S reaches a maximum source density of ≈27,800 deg-2. By virtue of the exquisite X-ray and multiwavelength data available in the CDF-S, we are able to measure the number counts from a variety of source populations (active galactic nuclei (AGNs), normal galaxies, and Galactic stars) and subpopulations (as a function of redshift, AGN absorption, luminosity, and galaxy morphology) and test models that describe their evolution. We find that AGNs still dominate the X-ray number counts down to the faintest flux levels for all bands and reach a limiting SB source density of ≈14,900 deg-2, the highest reliable AGN source density measured at any wavelength. We find that the normal-galaxy counts rise rapidly near the flux limits and, at the limiting SB flux, reach source densities of ≈12,700 deg-2 and make up 46% ± 5% of the total number counts. The rapid rise of the galaxy counts toward faint fluxes, as well as significant normal-galaxy contributions to the overall number counts, indicates that normal galaxies will overtake AGNs just below the ≈4 Ms SB flux limit and will provide a numerically significant new X-ray source population in future surveys that reach below the ≈4 Ms sensitivity limit. We show that a future ≈10 Ms CDF-S would allow for a significant increase in X-ray-detected sources, with many of the new sources being cosmologically distant (z >~ 0.6) normal galaxies.
2012
Lehmer B.D., Xue Y.Q., Brandt W.N., Alexander D.M., Bauer F.E., Brusa M., et al. (2012). The 4Ms Chandra Deep Field-South number counts apportioned by source class: pervasive Active Galactic Nuclei and the ascent of normal galaxies. THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 752, 46-68 [10.1088/0004-637X/752/1/46].
Lehmer B.D.; Xue Y.Q.; Brandt W.N.; Alexander D.M.; Bauer F.E.; Brusa M.; Comastri A.; Gilli R.; Hornschemeier A.E.; Luo B.; Paolillo M.; Ptak A.; She...espandi
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/116607
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