The most important contribution to the description of the energy transfer mechanism in the space of scales of turbulent flows is the Kolmogorov theory. Under the assumption of isotropy, this theory asserts that the energy cascade in the inertial range is from large to small scales and proportional to the rate of energy dissipation. This picture is claimed to be universal since it is commonly assumed that isotropy recovery takes place at small scales of any flow for sufficiently high Reynolds number. This assumption fails to hold in wall-turbulence, where the interaction between anisotropic production and inhomogeneous spatial fluxes strongly modifies the classical energy cascade up to a reverse cascade .
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