Temperature control during aluminium extrusion is a mandatory activity in order to produce defect-free profiles and to optimize process productivity. During the extrusion process, the profile exit temperature increases due to amount of work spent to overcome friction and to plastically deform the workpiece that is converted to heat. In addition, if the ram speed or the extrusion ratio increase, the temperature further raises leading to detrimental surface defects such as hot cracks. The main advantages of dissipate the excessive generated heat in the die and at the end of the forming zone are related to the possibility of increasing only slightly the extrusion force and to reduce the conduction path from the forming zone to the cooling source. In addition, it is possible to cool critical die areas directly by sizing and positioning cooling channels or cooling nozzles adequately to prevent hot cracking. However, the manufacturing of conformal cooling channels close to the main forming zone by means of conventional machining is a difficult task for profiles and dies with highly complex geometries. Thus, the use of additive manufacturing technologies is a promising approach to allow a conformal cooling. The major advantage of additive manufacturing processes against conventional subtractive methods is the geometrical freedom of the produced components and the manufacturing of conformal cooling channels. The chromium hot-work tool steels are the most widely selected materials for forging, die-casting and extrusion dies applications because of their high thermo-mechanical strength, fatigue strength, toughness and relative low cost. Nowadays, thanks to the selective laser melting (SLM) technology, it is possible to produce structures with 99% density, since the material is completely melted and later solidified without forming spherical voids [4]. Since, to date, the additive manufacturing processes are often accompanied with higher manufacturing time and costs than conventional subtractive methods, a new concept for a hybrid extrusion die is presented. In the present work, a multi-die is proposed in which the expensive AM part, the insert with conformal cooling channels, is integrated into a conventional machined steel housing. A profile produced with a short die lifetime and critical issues on thermal field has been identified and selected consisting in a round bar of 10mm diameter made by AA6060.

SLM of extrusion dies with liquid nitrogen cooling

Valli, Giuseppe;Donati, Lorenzo;Fortunato, Alessandro;Tomesani, Luca
2019

Abstract

Temperature control during aluminium extrusion is a mandatory activity in order to produce defect-free profiles and to optimize process productivity. During the extrusion process, the profile exit temperature increases due to amount of work spent to overcome friction and to plastically deform the workpiece that is converted to heat. In addition, if the ram speed or the extrusion ratio increase, the temperature further raises leading to detrimental surface defects such as hot cracks. The main advantages of dissipate the excessive generated heat in the die and at the end of the forming zone are related to the possibility of increasing only slightly the extrusion force and to reduce the conduction path from the forming zone to the cooling source. In addition, it is possible to cool critical die areas directly by sizing and positioning cooling channels or cooling nozzles adequately to prevent hot cracking. However, the manufacturing of conformal cooling channels close to the main forming zone by means of conventional machining is a difficult task for profiles and dies with highly complex geometries. Thus, the use of additive manufacturing technologies is a promising approach to allow a conformal cooling. The major advantage of additive manufacturing processes against conventional subtractive methods is the geometrical freedom of the produced components and the manufacturing of conformal cooling channels. The chromium hot-work tool steels are the most widely selected materials for forging, die-casting and extrusion dies applications because of their high thermo-mechanical strength, fatigue strength, toughness and relative low cost. Nowadays, thanks to the selective laser melting (SLM) technology, it is possible to produce structures with 99% density, since the material is completely melted and later solidified without forming spherical voids [4]. Since, to date, the additive manufacturing processes are often accompanied with higher manufacturing time and costs than conventional subtractive methods, a new concept for a hybrid extrusion die is presented. In the present work, a multi-die is proposed in which the expensive AM part, the insert with conformal cooling channels, is integrated into a conventional machined steel housing. A profile produced with a short die lifetime and critical issues on thermal field has been identified and selected consisting in a round bar of 10mm diameter made by AA6060.
2019
Quaderni del DIN – GMA Atti di giornate di studio – 12
39
40
Pelaccia, Riccardo; Reggiani, Barbara; Todaro, Ivan; Valli, Giuseppe; Donati, Lorenzo; Squatrito, Rosario; Fortunato, Alessandro; Tomesani, Luca
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/735053
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