Viruses are intracellular parasites that require a living host in which to replicate. The parasitic nature of viruses makes them important infectious agents of humans, animal, plants and microorganisms. Viruses are ubiquitous in nature being found in all ecological niches occupied by their hosts. This book examines different types of viruses that are found in a variety of environments – including water, food, plants and animals – and can have major health and economic impact on humans and other hosts. Chapter 1 explores the complex nature of the ecology of influenza virus and the role that reassortment of segmented viral genomes in different animal hosts plays in the rapid production of new viruses with increased pathogenicity. Chapter 2 also looks at the interaction between viruses and hosts with a focus on the transmission of begomovirus by the whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci, a pest of major agricultural plants. Food and water play major roles in the transmission of many viruses. These environments are the subject of chapters 3 and 4, respectively. The circulation of waterborne viruses, the diseases they cause, methods of virus detection and legislative issues concerning water quality are discussed in chapter 3, while chapter 4 focuses on the biology of two important foodborne viruses – norovirus and hepatitis A virus – and discusses methods of control of their spread. Chapters 5 and 6 describe the evolution of arboviruses and rotavirus, respectively, and the factors involved in the emergence and proliferation of new virus types. Finally, chapter 7 deals with the use of bacteriophages as biocontrol agents. The history of ‘bacteriophage therapy’ is discussed with the focus of the chapter being the control of bacterial growth in environmental and food applications. The book is suitable for practicing scientists as well as graduate students who seek an understanding of the variety of viruses that share our world.

Why, how and where does interspecies transmission of influenza A viruses occur?

Maria Alessandra De Marco;DELOGU, MAURO
2009

Abstract

Viruses are intracellular parasites that require a living host in which to replicate. The parasitic nature of viruses makes them important infectious agents of humans, animal, plants and microorganisms. Viruses are ubiquitous in nature being found in all ecological niches occupied by their hosts. This book examines different types of viruses that are found in a variety of environments – including water, food, plants and animals – and can have major health and economic impact on humans and other hosts. Chapter 1 explores the complex nature of the ecology of influenza virus and the role that reassortment of segmented viral genomes in different animal hosts plays in the rapid production of new viruses with increased pathogenicity. Chapter 2 also looks at the interaction between viruses and hosts with a focus on the transmission of begomovirus by the whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci, a pest of major agricultural plants. Food and water play major roles in the transmission of many viruses. These environments are the subject of chapters 3 and 4, respectively. The circulation of waterborne viruses, the diseases they cause, methods of virus detection and legislative issues concerning water quality are discussed in chapter 3, while chapter 4 focuses on the biology of two important foodborne viruses – norovirus and hepatitis A virus – and discusses methods of control of their spread. Chapters 5 and 6 describe the evolution of arboviruses and rotavirus, respectively, and the factors involved in the emergence and proliferation of new virus types. Finally, chapter 7 deals with the use of bacteriophages as biocontrol agents. The history of ‘bacteriophage therapy’ is discussed with the focus of the chapter being the control of bacterial growth in environmental and food applications. The book is suitable for practicing scientists as well as graduate students who seek an understanding of the variety of viruses that share our world.
Viruses in the Environment
1
29
Isabella Donatelli; Maria Alessandra De Marco; Maria Laura Pasqua ; Mauro Delogu
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/70906
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