Before independence, nationalism in Mozambique was characterised by a plurality of leaders that competed for influence both within and outside FRELIMO. Each of them tried to gain political support at continental and international level, and, eventually, the leadership that rose to power within FRELIMO by the end of the 1960s and early 1970s prevailed over other components of Mozambican nationalism both on the field of the liberation war and at diplomatic level. This leadership was highly cosmopolitan and implemented a vibrant diplomacy within the mechanisms of the cold war worldwide. FRELIMO was supported by newly independent African governments that were active in promoting the independence of African people under colonial rule (such as Tanzania, Algeria, Zambia and others), and then by governments from the Eastern bloc of the cold war as well as by solidarity committees in the West (US, Scandinavian countries, UK, Italy and others). Within these contexts, FRELLIMO secured a key political legitimation as the sole ‘authentic’ liberation movement of Mozambique, joined by other ‘authentic’ movements of the Portuguese colonies, South Africa and Southern Rhodesia – and in opposition to a rival group of anti-colonial movements. This status was also recognised among important international organisations as CONCP, AAPSO, WPC, OUA and, eventually, the UN. Probably, the networks of solidarity with FRELIMO that developed in the West played a key role towards the defeat of the Portuguese regime and the independence of Mozambique, since a number of Western European countries were formally allied with Portugal within the NATO alliance.

International Solidarity with FRELIMO in Mozambique during the Liberation Struggle

Corrado Tornimbeni
2019

Abstract

Before independence, nationalism in Mozambique was characterised by a plurality of leaders that competed for influence both within and outside FRELIMO. Each of them tried to gain political support at continental and international level, and, eventually, the leadership that rose to power within FRELIMO by the end of the 1960s and early 1970s prevailed over other components of Mozambican nationalism both on the field of the liberation war and at diplomatic level. This leadership was highly cosmopolitan and implemented a vibrant diplomacy within the mechanisms of the cold war worldwide. FRELIMO was supported by newly independent African governments that were active in promoting the independence of African people under colonial rule (such as Tanzania, Algeria, Zambia and others), and then by governments from the Eastern bloc of the cold war as well as by solidarity committees in the West (US, Scandinavian countries, UK, Italy and others). Within these contexts, FRELLIMO secured a key political legitimation as the sole ‘authentic’ liberation movement of Mozambique, joined by other ‘authentic’ movements of the Portuguese colonies, South Africa and Southern Rhodesia – and in opposition to a rival group of anti-colonial movements. This status was also recognised among important international organisations as CONCP, AAPSO, WPC, OUA and, eventually, the UN. Probably, the networks of solidarity with FRELIMO that developed in the West played a key role towards the defeat of the Portuguese regime and the independence of Mozambique, since a number of Western European countries were formally allied with Portugal within the NATO alliance.
Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History
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Corrado Tornimbeni
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/706300
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