Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz) is a member of the Brassicaceae family, encompassing both spring and winter types, with the latter requiring vernalization to produce seed. It has been shown that spring camelina is highly adaptable, able to grow in a wide range of different environmental conditions. In particular, there is evidence that in locations characterized by mild winters, as prevalent in the Mediterranean area, spring camelina can be successfully grown as a winter crop. In the framework of the European project COSMOS (Camelina & crambe Oil crops as Sources for Medium-chain Oils for Specialty oleochemicals) a 2-year plot experiment (2015-2017) was established at the experimental farm of the University of Bologna (44° 30’ N, 11° 23’ E). The aim of the study was to compare a spring (Midas) and a winter (Luna) camelina cultivar in response to two fall seeding dates (early and late October) and two seeding rates (conventional vs. reduced) in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Bologna has a North Mediterranean climate; deep soil, fertile, and classified as silt-clay-loam with an organic matter content of 1.6%. The two growing seasons showed different meteorological conditions: in 2015/16, winter was characterized by mild temperatures (5.3°C) and 230 mm of precipitation; in 2016/17, winter temperatures were lower (3.6°C) and rainfall was only 89 mm. Although remarkably less developed in the second year (-50% of aboveground biomass compared to first year), camelina was confirmed to be well adapted to local conditions. The rate of winter survival was high (83%), even for Midas, and was not influenced by seeding rate nor by sowing date. Growth cycle of camelina was very short (~1200 growing degree days, GDD, from sowing to harvest). In both seasons, the spring cultivar Midas reached maturity at the end of May, 5-7 days earlier than the winter cultivar Luna. In the first season, seed yield of both genotypes exceeded 2 Mg DM ha-1; there was no significant effect of seeding date, seeding rate or cultivar. Midas presented significantly higher harvest index than Luna (0.26 vs. 0.23, P≤0.05). Seed oil yield was confirmed stable and averaged 0.86 Mg DM oil ha-1. The amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the oil was found to be significantly affected by seeding date and cultivar, with Midas presenting higher C18:3 and lower C18:2 contents than Luna. The early maturity of camelina, particularly when spring camelina was grown as a winter crop, could be appreciated by local farmers as it would allow them to grow a second crop (i.e., corn, soybean) in the same season (double cropping).

FALL SEEDING OF SPRING CAMELINA: AN OPPORTUNITY FOR FARMERS IN NORTHERN ITALY

Federica Zanetti
;
Giuseppe Di Girolamo
;
Daria Righini
;
Andrea Monti
2017

Abstract

Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz) is a member of the Brassicaceae family, encompassing both spring and winter types, with the latter requiring vernalization to produce seed. It has been shown that spring camelina is highly adaptable, able to grow in a wide range of different environmental conditions. In particular, there is evidence that in locations characterized by mild winters, as prevalent in the Mediterranean area, spring camelina can be successfully grown as a winter crop. In the framework of the European project COSMOS (Camelina & crambe Oil crops as Sources for Medium-chain Oils for Specialty oleochemicals) a 2-year plot experiment (2015-2017) was established at the experimental farm of the University of Bologna (44° 30’ N, 11° 23’ E). The aim of the study was to compare a spring (Midas) and a winter (Luna) camelina cultivar in response to two fall seeding dates (early and late October) and two seeding rates (conventional vs. reduced) in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Bologna has a North Mediterranean climate; deep soil, fertile, and classified as silt-clay-loam with an organic matter content of 1.6%. The two growing seasons showed different meteorological conditions: in 2015/16, winter was characterized by mild temperatures (5.3°C) and 230 mm of precipitation; in 2016/17, winter temperatures were lower (3.6°C) and rainfall was only 89 mm. Although remarkably less developed in the second year (-50% of aboveground biomass compared to first year), camelina was confirmed to be well adapted to local conditions. The rate of winter survival was high (83%), even for Midas, and was not influenced by seeding rate nor by sowing date. Growth cycle of camelina was very short (~1200 growing degree days, GDD, from sowing to harvest). In both seasons, the spring cultivar Midas reached maturity at the end of May, 5-7 days earlier than the winter cultivar Luna. In the first season, seed yield of both genotypes exceeded 2 Mg DM ha-1; there was no significant effect of seeding date, seeding rate or cultivar. Midas presented significantly higher harvest index than Luna (0.26 vs. 0.23, P≤0.05). Seed oil yield was confirmed stable and averaged 0.86 Mg DM oil ha-1. The amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the oil was found to be significantly affected by seeding date and cultivar, with Midas presenting higher C18:3 and lower C18:2 contents than Luna. The early maturity of camelina, particularly when spring camelina was grown as a winter crop, could be appreciated by local farmers as it would allow them to grow a second crop (i.e., corn, soybean) in the same season (double cropping).
Industrial Crops and Products: Renewable Feedstocks for a Sustainable Bioeconomy
19
19
Federica Zanetti, Christina Eynck, Giuseppe Di Girolamo, Daria Righini, Debbie Puttick, Andrea Monti
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/631198
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