Wheat is the most important and widely cultivated cereal crop in the world. In Italy durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) has a great economical importance, especially for good quality pasta production. Durum and soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be affected by several Fusarium species able to cause Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), a cereal fungal disease widespread throughout the world with characteristic symptom of bleached spikes. FHB provokes yield losses, mainly in durum wheat more susceptible than soft wheat, and quality reduction due to mycotoxin contamination, which can occur in both unprocessed and processed wheat, representing a risk for human and animal health. The principal mycotoxins in wheat are trichothecenes B, especially deoxynivalenol (DON), mainly produced by F. graminearum and F. culmorum, the main causal agents of FHB. DON levels in Europe are established by COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 1126/2007 of 28 September 2007 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006. DON levels in the pasta food chain are shown in the presentation. FHB is defined a complex disease, because it may be caused by several Fusarium species producing different mycotoxins, whose presence varies at a local or regional levels depending on weather conditions especially during wheat anthesis, which is the period of its major susceptibility. In Italy, other than F. graminearum and F. culmorum, F. avenaceum, F. poae and F. equiseti are the species frequently present and recently F. proliferatum, a fumonisins producer, has also been detected. Knowing the occurrence of Fusarium species in growing areas helps to predict mycotoxin content in harvested grains. A focus on Syrian wheat case has shown the potential of mycotoxin risk in a country where the limits allowed for mycotoxins have not been yet defined. A Multiplex Real Time PCR for Fusarium species presence and a Fusarium MultiToxin approach on wheat grains have revealed the presence of F. proliferatum, a species until now considered of minor importance in wheat, but responsible of fumonisin contamination. These technologies are fundamental to monitor Fusarium population on wheat and to detect emergent mycotoxins, in a period of climatic changes, in order to safeguard human health.

Fusarium Head Blight and Fusarium mycotoxin risks in wheat production,

PRODI, ANTONIO;PISI, ANNAMARIA;NIPOTI, PAOLA
2015

Abstract

Wheat is the most important and widely cultivated cereal crop in the world. In Italy durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) has a great economical importance, especially for good quality pasta production. Durum and soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be affected by several Fusarium species able to cause Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), a cereal fungal disease widespread throughout the world with characteristic symptom of bleached spikes. FHB provokes yield losses, mainly in durum wheat more susceptible than soft wheat, and quality reduction due to mycotoxin contamination, which can occur in both unprocessed and processed wheat, representing a risk for human and animal health. The principal mycotoxins in wheat are trichothecenes B, especially deoxynivalenol (DON), mainly produced by F. graminearum and F. culmorum, the main causal agents of FHB. DON levels in Europe are established by COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 1126/2007 of 28 September 2007 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006. DON levels in the pasta food chain are shown in the presentation. FHB is defined a complex disease, because it may be caused by several Fusarium species producing different mycotoxins, whose presence varies at a local or regional levels depending on weather conditions especially during wheat anthesis, which is the period of its major susceptibility. In Italy, other than F. graminearum and F. culmorum, F. avenaceum, F. poae and F. equiseti are the species frequently present and recently F. proliferatum, a fumonisins producer, has also been detected. Knowing the occurrence of Fusarium species in growing areas helps to predict mycotoxin content in harvested grains. A focus on Syrian wheat case has shown the potential of mycotoxin risk in a country where the limits allowed for mycotoxins have not been yet defined. A Multiplex Real Time PCR for Fusarium species presence and a Fusarium MultiToxin approach on wheat grains have revealed the presence of F. proliferatum, a species until now considered of minor importance in wheat, but responsible of fumonisin contamination. These technologies are fundamental to monitor Fusarium population on wheat and to detect emergent mycotoxins, in a period of climatic changes, in order to safeguard human health.
Power of Fungi and Mycotoxins in Health and Disease,
34
34
Prodi, A; Pisi, A; Nipoti, P
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/548598
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