Soil salinization is one of the most widespread soil degradation processes on earth and, worldwide, one billion hectares are affected, mainly in the arid–semiarid regions of Asia, Australia and South America [1]. In Europe, soil salinity has effects on one million hectares mainly in the Mediterranean countries [1]. There are two types of salinization: primary salinization caused by natural events such as sea spray or rock weathering or seepage [2] and secondary salinization that is caused by human activities such as irrigation with salty water, groundwater overexploitation and excessive drainage [1]. Along the Adriatic coast of the Po Plain, freshwater resources are becoming increasingly scarce, because of irrigation and other intense water use, salinization and long periods of drought [3]. Custodio [4] underlines that, especially in southern Europe, the irrigation practices and the water requirements to sustain the coastal tourism industry exhort a strong pressure on water resources. The impact of groundwater salinization in coastal areas affects both natural vegetation biodiversity and agricultural production, through soil salinization and reduction of freshwater availability for irrigation. Salinization is closely associated with the process of desertification, because salinity may have direct negative effects on crop yields by reducing the ability of plant roots to take up water [5]. The most common salinity effect is a general stunting of plant growth, but not all plants respond in the same way. Grain and corn may reduce their seed production without appreciably plant dimensions reduction.

Irrigation Management in Coastal Zones to Prevent Soil and Groundwater Salinization

GREGGIO, NICOLAS;MOLLEMA, PAULINE NELLA;ANTONELLINI, MARCO;GABBIANELLI, GIOVANNI
2012

Abstract

Soil salinization is one of the most widespread soil degradation processes on earth and, worldwide, one billion hectares are affected, mainly in the arid–semiarid regions of Asia, Australia and South America [1]. In Europe, soil salinity has effects on one million hectares mainly in the Mediterranean countries [1]. There are two types of salinization: primary salinization caused by natural events such as sea spray or rock weathering or seepage [2] and secondary salinization that is caused by human activities such as irrigation with salty water, groundwater overexploitation and excessive drainage [1]. Along the Adriatic coast of the Po Plain, freshwater resources are becoming increasingly scarce, because of irrigation and other intense water use, salinization and long periods of drought [3]. Custodio [4] underlines that, especially in southern Europe, the irrigation practices and the water requirements to sustain the coastal tourism industry exhort a strong pressure on water resources. The impact of groundwater salinization in coastal areas affects both natural vegetation biodiversity and agricultural production, through soil salinization and reduction of freshwater availability for irrigation. Salinization is closely associated with the process of desertification, because salinity may have direct negative effects on crop yields by reducing the ability of plant roots to take up water [5]. The most common salinity effect is a general stunting of plant growth, but not all plants respond in the same way. Grain and corn may reduce their seed production without appreciably plant dimensions reduction.
Resource Management for Sustainable Agriculture
21
48
N. Greggio; P. Mollema; M. Antonellini; G. Gabbianelli
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/128579
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