Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare disease with a very complex pathophysiology differing from other causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH). It is an infrequent consequence of acute pulmonary embolism that is frequently misdiagnosed. Pathogenesis has been related to coagulation abnormalities, infection or inflammation, although these disturbances can be absent in many cases. The hallmarks of CTEPH are thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary vessels, variable degree of ventricular dysfunction and secondary microvascular arteriopathy. The definition of CTEPH also includes an increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure of more than 25 mmHg with a normal pulmonary capillary wedge of less than 15 mmHg. It is classified as World Health Organization group 4 PH, and is the only type that can be surgically cured by pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). This operation needs to be carried out by a team with strong expertise, from the diagnostic and decisional pathway to the operation itself. However, because the disease has a very heterogeneous phenotype in terms of anatomy, degree of PH and the lack of a standard patient profile, not all cases of CTEPH can be treated by PEA. As a result, PH-directed medical therapy traditionally used for the other types of PH has been proposed and is utilized in CTEPH patients. Since 2015, we have been witnessing the rebirth of balloon pulmonary angioplasty, a technique first performed in 2001 but has since fallen out fashion due to major complications. The refinement of such techniques has allowed its safe utilization as a salvage therapy in inoperable patients. In the present keynote lecture, we will describe these therapeutic approaches and results.

Therapeutic alternatives in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: from pulmonary endarterectomy to balloon pulmonary angioplasty to medical therapy. State of the art from a multidisciplinary team

Loforte, Antonino;Cavalli, Giulio Giovanni;Gliozzi, Gregorio;Botta, Luca;Mariani, Carlo;Votano, Daniela;Costantino, Antonino;Santamaria, Valeria;Tassi, Sara;Palazzini, Massimiliano;Rossi, Barbara;Barbera, Niccolo' Antonino;Niro, Fabio;Manes, Alessandra;Saia, Francesco;Dardi, Fabio;Galie', Nazzareno;Pacini, Davide
2022

Abstract

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare disease with a very complex pathophysiology differing from other causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH). It is an infrequent consequence of acute pulmonary embolism that is frequently misdiagnosed. Pathogenesis has been related to coagulation abnormalities, infection or inflammation, although these disturbances can be absent in many cases. The hallmarks of CTEPH are thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary vessels, variable degree of ventricular dysfunction and secondary microvascular arteriopathy. The definition of CTEPH also includes an increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure of more than 25 mmHg with a normal pulmonary capillary wedge of less than 15 mmHg. It is classified as World Health Organization group 4 PH, and is the only type that can be surgically cured by pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). This operation needs to be carried out by a team with strong expertise, from the diagnostic and decisional pathway to the operation itself. However, because the disease has a very heterogeneous phenotype in terms of anatomy, degree of PH and the lack of a standard patient profile, not all cases of CTEPH can be treated by PEA. As a result, PH-directed medical therapy traditionally used for the other types of PH has been proposed and is utilized in CTEPH patients. Since 2015, we have been witnessing the rebirth of balloon pulmonary angioplasty, a technique first performed in 2001 but has since fallen out fashion due to major complications. The refinement of such techniques has allowed its safe utilization as a salvage therapy in inoperable patients. In the present keynote lecture, we will describe these therapeutic approaches and results.
ANNALS OF CARDIOTHORACIC SURGERY
Martin-Suarez, Sofia; Loforte, Antonino; Cavalli, Giulio Giovanni; Gliozzi, Gregorio; Botta, Luca; Mariani, Carlo; Orioli, Valentina; Votano, Daniela; Costantino, Antonino; Santamaria, Valeria; Tassi, Sara; Fiaschini, Costanza; Campanini, Francesco; Palazzini, Massimiliano; Rossi, Barbara; Barbera, Niccolo' Antonino; Niro, Fabio; Manes, Alessandra; Saia, Francesco; Dardi, Fabio; Galie', Nazzareno; Pacini, Davide
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/881310
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