Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been considered for a long time exclusively driven by critical mutations in hematopoietic stem cells. Recently, the contribution of further players, such as stromal and immune bone marrow (BM) microenvironment components, to AML onset and progression has been pointed out. In particular, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) steadily remodel the leukemic niche, not only favoring leukemic cell growth and development but also tuning their responsiveness to treatments. The list of mechanisms driven by MSCs to promote a leukemia drug-resistant phenotype has progressively expanded. Moreover, the relative proportion and the activation status of immune cells in the BM leukemic microenvironment may vary by influencing their reactivity against leukemic cells. In that, the capacity of the stroma to re‐program immune cells, thus promoting and/or hampering therapeutic efficacy, is emerging as a crucial aspect in AML biology, adding an extra layer of complexity. Current treatments for AML have mainly focused on eradicating leukemia cells, with little consideration for the leukemia‐damaged BM niche. Increasing evidence on the contribution of stromal and immune cells in response to therapy underscores the need to hold the mutual interplay, which takes place in the BM. A careful dissection of these interactions will help provide novel applications for drugs already under experimentation and open a wide array of opportunities for new drug discovery.

Emerging bone marrow microenvironment‐driven mechanisms of drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia: Tangle or chance?

Ciciarello M.;Corradi G.;Forte D.;Cavo M.;Curti A.
2021

Abstract

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been considered for a long time exclusively driven by critical mutations in hematopoietic stem cells. Recently, the contribution of further players, such as stromal and immune bone marrow (BM) microenvironment components, to AML onset and progression has been pointed out. In particular, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) steadily remodel the leukemic niche, not only favoring leukemic cell growth and development but also tuning their responsiveness to treatments. The list of mechanisms driven by MSCs to promote a leukemia drug-resistant phenotype has progressively expanded. Moreover, the relative proportion and the activation status of immune cells in the BM leukemic microenvironment may vary by influencing their reactivity against leukemic cells. In that, the capacity of the stroma to re‐program immune cells, thus promoting and/or hampering therapeutic efficacy, is emerging as a crucial aspect in AML biology, adding an extra layer of complexity. Current treatments for AML have mainly focused on eradicating leukemia cells, with little consideration for the leukemia‐damaged BM niche. Increasing evidence on the contribution of stromal and immune cells in response to therapy underscores the need to hold the mutual interplay, which takes place in the BM. A careful dissection of these interactions will help provide novel applications for drugs already under experimentation and open a wide array of opportunities for new drug discovery.
CANCERS
Ciciarello M.; Corradi G.; Forte D.; Cavo M.; Curti A.
File in questo prodotto:
Eventuali allegati, non sono esposti

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/865227
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 3
  • Scopus 3
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 2
social impact