Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms generate organized mineral crystals. In human cells, this phenomenon culminates with the formation of hydroxyapatite, which is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite. The mechanism that explains the genesis within the cell and the propagation of the mineral in the extracellular matrix still remains largely unexplained, and its characterization is highly controversial, especially in humans. In fact, up to now, biomineralization core knowledge has been provided by investigations on the advanced phases of this process. In this study, we characterize the contents of calcium depositions in human bone mesenchymal stem cells exposed to an osteogenic cocktail for 4 and 10 days using synchrotron-based cryo-soft-X-ray tomography and cryo-XANES microscopy. The reported results suggest crystalline calcite as a precursor of hydroxyapatite depositions within the cells in the biomineralization process. In particular, both calcite and hydroxyapatite were detected within the cell during the early phase of osteogenic differentiation. This striking finding may redefine most of the biomineralization models published so far, taking into account that they have been formulated using murine samples while studies in human cell lines are still scarce.

Calcite as a precursor of hydroxyapatite in the early biomineralization of differentiating human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells

Malucelli E.;Rossi F.;Cappadone C.;Farruggia G.;Roveri N.;Iotti S.
2021

Abstract

Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms generate organized mineral crystals. In human cells, this phenomenon culminates with the formation of hydroxyapatite, which is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite. The mechanism that explains the genesis within the cell and the propagation of the mineral in the extracellular matrix still remains largely unexplained, and its characterization is highly controversial, especially in humans. In fact, up to now, biomineralization core knowledge has been provided by investigations on the advanced phases of this process. In this study, we characterize the contents of calcium depositions in human bone mesenchymal stem cells exposed to an osteogenic cocktail for 4 and 10 days using synchrotron-based cryo-soft-X-ray tomography and cryo-XANES microscopy. The reported results suggest crystalline calcite as a precursor of hydroxyapatite depositions within the cells in the biomineralization process. In particular, both calcite and hydroxyapatite were detected within the cell during the early phase of osteogenic differentiation. This striking finding may redefine most of the biomineralization models published so far, taking into account that they have been formulated using murine samples while studies in human cell lines are still scarce.
Andrea Sorrentino, Emil Malucelli, Francesca Rossi, Concettina Cappadone, Giovanna Farruggia, Claudia Moscheni, Ana J. Perez-Berna, Jose Javier Conesa, Chiara Colletti, Norberto Roveri, Eva Pereiro, Stefano Iotti
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/853125
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