Wire-and-Arc Additively Manufactured (WAAM) alloys are characterized by specific mechanical properties which can largely differ from the conventionally-manufactured alloys. In detail, the printing process results in a peculiar microstructure, characterized by preferential crystallographic orientation with reference to the printing direction, that leads to an anisotropic mechanical behavior of the printed part. Previous experimental tests on WAAM-produced stainless steel plates showed in particular a strong anisotropic elastic behavior. Based on the above, the present work formulates a specific anisotropic elastic model for a WAAM-processed austenitic stainless steel, considering an orthogonally anisotropic (or orthotropic) constitutive law and a procedure to calibrate the elastic parameters based on the experimental results. In detail, the procedure is applied to calibrate the numerical values of the elastic parameters of a specific WAAM 304L austenitic stainless steel. For this aim, specific investigations on both the mechanical and microstructural features were carried out. Experimental tensile tests were performed on specimens with different orientations with reference to the printing direction. In detail, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratios were evaluated for samples oriented along three different orientations with regard to the printing deposition layers: longitudinally (L), transversally (T) and diagonally (D) to them. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) optical measuring system was used to acquire the full strain fields during the test. Microstructural analysis was also carried out to study the inherent microstructure, characterized by a distinctive grain growth direction, and to assess the preferred crystallographic orientations of specimens extracted along the three considered directions. The experimental results are used to calibrate the orthotropic elastic model. From the calibrated model additional material properties in terms of Young's and shear modulus for any printing direction are derived. The resulting values exhibit very large variations with the printing angle, with ratios between minimum to maximum values around 2 for the Young's modulus and 3.5 for the shear modulus. This marked orthotropic behavior could open unexplored design possibilities based on deformability issues. Additionally, the calibrated orthotropic model can also be used for future experimental explorations of the mechanical properties of WAAM alloys and for stiffness-based structural design optimizations.

Experimentally-validated orthotropic elastic model for Wire-and-Arc Additively Manufactured stainless steel

Laghi V.;Tonelli L.;Palermo M.;Bruggi M.;Sola R.;Ceschini L.;Trombetti T.
2021

Abstract

Wire-and-Arc Additively Manufactured (WAAM) alloys are characterized by specific mechanical properties which can largely differ from the conventionally-manufactured alloys. In detail, the printing process results in a peculiar microstructure, characterized by preferential crystallographic orientation with reference to the printing direction, that leads to an anisotropic mechanical behavior of the printed part. Previous experimental tests on WAAM-produced stainless steel plates showed in particular a strong anisotropic elastic behavior. Based on the above, the present work formulates a specific anisotropic elastic model for a WAAM-processed austenitic stainless steel, considering an orthogonally anisotropic (or orthotropic) constitutive law and a procedure to calibrate the elastic parameters based on the experimental results. In detail, the procedure is applied to calibrate the numerical values of the elastic parameters of a specific WAAM 304L austenitic stainless steel. For this aim, specific investigations on both the mechanical and microstructural features were carried out. Experimental tensile tests were performed on specimens with different orientations with reference to the printing direction. In detail, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratios were evaluated for samples oriented along three different orientations with regard to the printing deposition layers: longitudinally (L), transversally (T) and diagonally (D) to them. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) optical measuring system was used to acquire the full strain fields during the test. Microstructural analysis was also carried out to study the inherent microstructure, characterized by a distinctive grain growth direction, and to assess the preferred crystallographic orientations of specimens extracted along the three considered directions. The experimental results are used to calibrate the orthotropic elastic model. From the calibrated model additional material properties in terms of Young's and shear modulus for any printing direction are derived. The resulting values exhibit very large variations with the printing angle, with ratios between minimum to maximum values around 2 for the Young's modulus and 3.5 for the shear modulus. This marked orthotropic behavior could open unexplored design possibilities based on deformability issues. Additionally, the calibrated orthotropic model can also be used for future experimental explorations of the mechanical properties of WAAM alloys and for stiffness-based structural design optimizations.
ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
Laghi V.; Tonelli L.; Palermo M.; Bruggi M.; Sola R.; Ceschini L.; Trombetti T.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/820060
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